Palestine Projects

About CPT Palestine

CPT Palestine is a faith-based organization that supports Palestinian-led, nonviolent, grassroots resistance to the Israeli occupation and the unjust structures that uphold it.  By collaborating with local Palestinian and Israeli peacemakers and educating people in our home communities, we help create a space for justice and peace.

We maintain a project in the southern West Bank city of Hebron (Al-Khalil in Arabic).

The Work of CPT Palestine:

Latest Update: 

Stay Updated on Our Work

 

Stop the Hate Tour

Tourists who visit Hebron are likely to get more than they bargained for if they walk through the Old City on Saturday afternoon. Shoppers choosing between embroidered dresses and brightly colored kaffiyas will be surprised by dozens of soldiers, dressed for war and pointing their weapons at visitors and shopkeepers. Travelers who were hoping to purchase a falafel on their way to visit the tomb of Abraham and the historic Ibrahimi Mosque will find their way blocked as Israeli police and soldiers spread through the square at Bab al Baladiya and fill the narrow walled roads of the old city shopping district. Saturday afternoons and on religious holidays, the Settler Tour gives visitors an unexpected chance to see the occupation of the historic old city of Hebron through new eyes.

'Firing Zone' Project

CPT is involved in a campaign to save Masafer Yatta from being annexed by Israel. Masafer Yatta refers to an area of the South Hebron Hills in the West Bank which is home to 1800 people living in twelve villages. Eight of those villages (approximately 1000 people) face eviction by the Israeli government. Israel wants to use the area for military training and refers to the area as 'Firing Zone 918'.  For more information on the Firing  Zone project, or for information about how to get involved got to our page: Stand with Masafer Yatta

New expulsions Israeli military proposing for Jinba village residents as a "compromise."

 

'Al-Rajabi Building' Project

 CPT is involved in a campaign to prevent settlers from re-occupying Al Rajabi Building in Hebron. Al Rajabi Building was occupied by settlers in 2007. The settlers were evicted in 2008 when the Israeli Supreme Court ruled that some of the documents of sale had been forged. When the settlers were evicted the level of settler violence increased in Hebron and throughout the West Bank. 

If a settlement was to be re-established in  Al Rajabi Building it would create territorial continuity between the Kiryat Arba and the Settlements in the Old City. Palestinians have been forbidden to drive on the road outside Al Rajabi Building since 2000, however when the settlers were occupying the building greater restrictions of movement were placed upon the Palestinians. History shows us that often the Israeli Defence Forces use the excuse of security to carry out house searches and increase dententions in areas where there are settlements.  

For more information visit our Al Rajabi Building page

Most recent CPTnet story: 

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Israeli military locates and kills suspects in kidnappings and murders of three Israeli youth

 

 
 photo @alaaqawasmi

Early this morning, Tuesday, 23 September 2014, the Israeli military discovered the hiding place of and killed Amer Abu Aisha and Marwan Qawasmeh, the two suspects in the kidnapping and killing of the three Israeli settler youth in June.

The killing took place on the first floor of a wood factory in the Hai El Sharma neighborhood near Hebron University after a firefight.  The building has three floors:  the first is a wood factory; the second contains shops and the third is residential.  Due to the live ammunition, small bombs, and tear gas thrown into the building by the soldiers, a fire started, which burned one of the two suspects almost beyond recognition.  The blasts from the bombs, and the military tractor used to cave in the building also damaged adjoining homes and buildings.

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON) REFLECTION: Peacemaking--a journey taken step by step

 Corey in Old CIty
  CPTer aspiring to be peacemaker while monitoring
 soldiers in Hebron's Old City.

I am an aspiring peacemaker.

I use the word “aspiring” because I have not yet fully embraced in thought and action the ideals of peacemaking that I find so compelling. Practicing it is a constant daily effort, a series of taking steps (sometimes forward, sometimes backward), falling, getting up, and trying again. Overall, I think I’ve taken more steps forward than backward, but my peacemaking journey is far from complete. It is a lifelong quest. 

Stepping into Conflict

I have been in many places where oppression is evident. It is in Palestine, however, where I have seen most clearly the systematic dehumanization of people by other people, in both subtle and obvious ways, every day, day after day.Watching interactions between Palestinians and Israelis has challenged me and my peacemaking ideals to the core. How do I express my anger in a way that doesn’t dehumanize those I accuse of dehumanizing others? How do I acknowledge the destructive forces of a system while acknowledging that the people who by choice or by birth are part of that system are children of God? How do I live in community with others during difficult circumstances?  

Prayers for Peacemakers, September 3, 2014

Prayers for Peacemakers, September 3, 2014

Pray for the people of Gaza, tens of thousands of whom remain homeless.  Aid organizations estimate that if Israel and Egypt continue to restrict the importation of construction materials into Gaza, the rebuilding of homes and infrastructure destroyed in the war this summer could take twenty years.

photo: Maan News

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Revenge devoid of purpose—punitive demolitions of Palestinian homes


 If Israel’s assault on Gaza this summer has been blind, primal violence on a macro scale, the demolition of three Palestinian apartment blocks in Hebron during the early hours of 18 August 2014—punitive retaliation against the suspected culprits in the kidnapping of three Israeli youth in June—represented pointless violence and suffering on a micro scale.  Yet that micro event, multiplied thousands of times over the days, weeks and years of occupation, adds up to what has been called “incremental genocide” in the sense of destroying a culture and its ability to survive.

Between 2001-2005, according to B’tselem figures, Israel demolished 664 Palestinian homes as forms of punishment.*  These demolitions displaced 4,182 innocent people, many of them neighbors of the suspect’s family, and occurred often on the basis of suspicion alone.

Hussam al-Qawasmi house (Photo: Yousef Natsheh)

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Israeli Military displaces family, stones observers, shuts down Old City for midnight settler tour

In the first week of August, the Israeli military added to the normal hardships people who live in and around the area of Hebron’s Old City must endure.

On 1 August 2014, the Israeli military occupied the rooftop of the al-Rajabi house in Jebal Johar near the Israeli settlement of Kiryat Arba at approximately 6 p.m.  According witnesses, the Israeli soldiers left the rooftop at around 7:00 p.m. and fired five tear gas grenades into the home, setting the interior into flames.  The result was a total loss of the family’s personal items. 

 Seven Palestinians live in the home. Five children, four boys and girl are now homeless. 

event_view: 
Title Start: End:
Palestine/Israel Delegation Thu, 10/09/2014 Wed, 10/22/2014
Palestine/Israel Delegation Sat, 11/29/2014 Sun, 12/14/2014

Photo Albums

Stand with Masafer Yatta

Get Informed

Interactive Report about Masafer Yatta

Masafer Yatta refers to an area of the South Hebron Hills in the West Bank which is home to 1800 people living in twelve villages. Eight of those villages (approx. 1000 people) face eviction by the Israeli government. Israel wants to use the area for military training and refers to the area as 'Firing Zone 918'. Our interactive report gives basic information about the area and the situation surrounding it. It also provides links to more information. Check it out! 

New expulsions Israeli military proposing for Jinba village residents as a "compromise."

 

South Hebron Hills Blog

Read updates about what is happening in the area from multiple NGOs working there. 

 

Links to resources and published articles:

Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI) Fact Sheet

B'Tselem  Map and Background on Masafer Yatta and Firing Zone 918

Campaign for the Abolition of Firing Zone 918 in the South Hebron Hills

OCHA's Massafer Yatta Case Study

Haaretz | When a Palestinian home isn’t really a home (20 February 2013)

The Telegraph | Cave-dwelling Palestinian farmers facing eviction from homes

Haaretz | A Toxic Attachment

New York Times | Israel Seeks Army Use of West Bank Area (23 July 2012)

Haaretz |  Israel orders demolition of 8 Palestinian villages, claims need for IDF training land(23 July 2012)

B’tselem’s report about Firing Zone 918′s historical and legal events since its birth until 2004: “Means of Expulsion: Violence, Harassment and Lawlessness against Palestinians”

OCHA’s report about firing areas all over the West Bank: http://bit.ly/1mH4DwQ

Defense Ministry submission to the Israeli High Court of Justice: the State Attorney submission to the Court

Firing Zone 918′s international Law violations, according to Professor Michael Bothe: http://bit.ly/1mH4NUM

 

CPT Participates in Peaceful demonstration

CPT participated in a peaceful march and bike ride to draw attention to and oppose the evictions in the Firing Zone. Read International Solidarity Movement's atricle about the demonstration here

Latest Update: 

Get Involved

Petition

Please read and sign our petition to the Israeli ambassador Here. Help us save these villages!  

Massafer Yatta Under Israeli Occupation

A video about the current situation and the possibilities of the area

Stay Updated

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IRAQI KURDISTAN: Bridging interfaith animosity and the pain of war--International Day of Peace in Kurdistan, Iraq

Three of our team walked into the gathering of about a hundred Kurdish peace and justice activists at the Cultural Café, in Suleimani, Iraqi Kurdistan, to celebrate the International Day of Peace.  Immediately, Nyan Mohammad, a teacher at the Arbat School, waved for us to come to sit at her table.  There, four displaced Ezidis (often called Yazidis) we had met before stood up and warmly greeted us.  Nyan, who is Muslim, made a special trip to the tent camp for displaced persons this afternoon to pick up this group and bring them to this event, which focused on building peace among religious groups

Hosting this event was a Kurdish women’s organization, called the Ashti Group.  The speakers included persons from four religious groups among Iraqi Kurds— An Ezidi, a member of the Kaka’i, (a Kurdish minority religion), a Muslim, and a Christian.  They each urged us not to judge people from other religions, but to live together in tolerance and harmony.  Their message was not theoretical but spoke to a real need of a society racked with ethnic violence.

Far right: Kurdish team colleague Parween Aziz; next to her, Peggy Gish.  Second from left,
 Nyan Mohammad, plus four Ezidi friends

MEDITERRANEAN: Writings on the wall

In one of the events that I participated in on the Greek island of Lesvos, I had the chance to see many writings migrants made to hang on the walls of the welcome center in Pipka. A piece of paper on the wall may not be a detailed story but what I saw delivered their pain. Here are some written by migrants from Afghanistan, Iran, Syria, Sudan and other war-torn countries:

A handmade poster by a Syrian refugee

Prayers for Peacemakers September 25, 2014

Prayers for Peacemakers September 25, 2014

Pray for the refugees and migrants caught up in the Greek court system, where they do not receive even the semblance of a fair hearing.

Epixel* for Sunday, September 21, 2014
Court in Mytilene, Lesvos
If then there is any encouragement in Christ, any consolation from love, any 
sharing in the Spirit, any compassion and sympathy,  
make my joy complete: be of 
the same mind, having the same love, being in full accord and of one mind. 
Philippians 1:1-2
*epixel: a snapshot-epistle to the churches related to and appearing with a text from the upcoming Sunday's Revised Common Lectionary readings.

IRAQI KURDISTAN REFLECTION: The new military intervention in Iraq—on not repeating what has not worked

 

 
 Yazidi refugees driven from their homes by ISIS

For many Americans, President Obama, with his latest plan to expand U.S. military intervention in Iraq, is finally “doing something.”  And people here in Iraqi Kurdistan are generally hopeful that this will stop the militant fighters calling themselves “the Islamic State,” or for the purposes of this article, ISIS.  I keenly feel the pain of the people here and do not want any more persons brutalized, yet I believe Obama’s plan will not diminish global terrorism; it will only expand and strengthen it.

It is helpful to remember that ISIS’s ability to capture areas of Iraq was possible because of the U.S. had destroyed its society and supported the Shia government that excluded Sunni populations, subjecting them to widespread loss of jobs, attacks, mass arrests, torture and extra-judicial killings.

While our team lived and worked in Baghdad, the U.S. and Iraqi forces bombed and destroyed whole neighborhoods and cities in the name of anti-terrorism, generating more anger toward America.  The U.S. failed to support the progressive, mostly nonviolent, uprisings, around the country, against government abuse and corruption.  Throughout the years of occupation, it was clear to us that U.S. military actions in Iraq were not really directed at protecting the Iraqi people, but for protecting American personnel and U.S. economic and military interests in Iraq and the Middle East.  Then, in early August of this year, U.S. military strikes were, once again, less for protecting religious and ethnic minorities in Iraq than protecting U.S. diplomats and the large oil companies developing oil fields in the Kurdish region.

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Israeli military locates and kills suspects in kidnappings and murders of three Israeli youth

 

 
 photo @alaaqawasmi

Early this morning, Tuesday, 23 September 2014, the Israeli military discovered the hiding place of and killed Amer Abu Aisha and Marwan Qawasmeh, the two suspects in the kidnapping and killing of the three Israeli settler youth in June.

The killing took place on the first floor of a wood factory in the Hai El Sharma neighborhood near Hebron University after a firefight.  The building has three floors:  the first is a wood factory; the second contains shops and the third is residential.  Due to the live ammunition, small bombs, and tear gas thrown into the building by the soldiers, a fire started, which burned one of the two suspects almost beyond recognition.  The blasts from the bombs, and the military tractor used to cave in the building also damaged adjoining homes and buildings.

Most recent CPTnet story: 

IRAQI KURDISTAN: Bridging interfaith animosity and the pain of war--International Day of Peace in Kurdistan, Iraq

Three of our team walked into the gathering of about a hundred Kurdish peace and justice activists at the Cultural Café, in Suleimani, Iraqi Kurdistan, to celebrate the International Day of Peace.  Immediately, Nyan Mohammad, a teacher at the Arbat School, waved for us to come to sit at her table.  There, four displaced Ezidis (often called Yazidis) we had met before stood up and warmly greeted us.  Nyan, who is Muslim, made a special trip to the tent camp for displaced persons this afternoon to pick up this group and bring them to this event, which focused on building peace among religious groups

Hosting this event was a Kurdish women’s organization, called the Ashti Group.  The speakers included persons from four religious groups among Iraqi Kurds— An Ezidi, a member of the Kaka’i, (a Kurdish minority religion), a Muslim, and a Christian.  They each urged us not to judge people from other religions, but to live together in tolerance and harmony.  Their message was not theoretical but spoke to a real need of a society racked with ethnic violence.

Far right: Kurdish team colleague Parween Aziz; next to her, Peggy Gish.  Second from left,
 Nyan Mohammad, plus four Ezidi friends

MEDITERRANEAN: Writings on the wall

In one of the events that I participated in on the Greek island of Lesvos, I had the chance to see many writings migrants made to hang on the walls of the welcome center in Pipka. A piece of paper on the wall may not be a detailed story but what I saw delivered their pain. Here are some written by migrants from Afghanistan, Iran, Syria, Sudan and other war-torn countries:

A handmade poster by a Syrian refugee

Prayers for Peacemakers September 25, 2014

Prayers for Peacemakers September 25, 2014

Pray for the refugees and migrants caught up in the Greek court system, where they do not receive even the semblance of a fair hearing.

Epixel* for Sunday, September 21, 2014
Court in Mytilene, Lesvos
If then there is any encouragement in Christ, any consolation from love, any 
sharing in the Spirit, any compassion and sympathy,  
make my joy complete: be of 
the same mind, having the same love, being in full accord and of one mind. 
Philippians 1:1-2
*epixel: a snapshot-epistle to the churches related to and appearing with a text from the upcoming Sunday's Revised Common Lectionary readings.

IRAQI KURDISTAN REFLECTION: The new military intervention in Iraq—on not repeating what has not worked

 

 
 Yazidi refugees driven from their homes by ISIS

For many Americans, President Obama, with his latest plan to expand U.S. military intervention in Iraq, is finally “doing something.”  And people here in Iraqi Kurdistan are generally hopeful that this will stop the militant fighters calling themselves “the Islamic State,” or for the purposes of this article, ISIS.  I keenly feel the pain of the people here and do not want any more persons brutalized, yet I believe Obama’s plan will not diminish global terrorism; it will only expand and strengthen it.

It is helpful to remember that ISIS’s ability to capture areas of Iraq was possible because of the U.S. had destroyed its society and supported the Shia government that excluded Sunni populations, subjecting them to widespread loss of jobs, attacks, mass arrests, torture and extra-judicial killings.

While our team lived and worked in Baghdad, the U.S. and Iraqi forces bombed and destroyed whole neighborhoods and cities in the name of anti-terrorism, generating more anger toward America.  The U.S. failed to support the progressive, mostly nonviolent, uprisings, around the country, against government abuse and corruption.  Throughout the years of occupation, it was clear to us that U.S. military actions in Iraq were not really directed at protecting the Iraqi people, but for protecting American personnel and U.S. economic and military interests in Iraq and the Middle East.  Then, in early August of this year, U.S. military strikes were, once again, less for protecting religious and ethnic minorities in Iraq than protecting U.S. diplomats and the large oil companies developing oil fields in the Kurdish region.

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Israeli military locates and kills suspects in kidnappings and murders of three Israeli youth

 

 
 photo @alaaqawasmi

Early this morning, Tuesday, 23 September 2014, the Israeli military discovered the hiding place of and killed Amer Abu Aisha and Marwan Qawasmeh, the two suspects in the kidnapping and killing of the three Israeli settler youth in June.

The killing took place on the first floor of a wood factory in the Hai El Sharma neighborhood near Hebron University after a firefight.  The building has three floors:  the first is a wood factory; the second contains shops and the third is residential.  Due to the live ammunition, small bombs, and tear gas thrown into the building by the soldiers, a fire started, which burned one of the two suspects almost beyond recognition.  The blasts from the bombs, and the military tractor used to cave in the building also damaged adjoining homes and buildings.

event_view: 

IRAQI KURDISTAN: Bridging interfaith animosity and the pain of war--International Day of Peace in Kurdistan, Iraq

Three of our team walked into the gathering of about a hundred Kurdish peace and justice activists at the Cultural Café, in Suleimani, Iraqi Kurdistan, to celebrate the International Day of Peace.  Immediately, Nyan Mohammad, a teacher at the Arbat School, waved for us to come to sit at her table.  There, four displaced Ezidis (often called Yazidis) we had met before stood up and warmly greeted us.  Nyan, who is Muslim, made a special trip to the tent camp for displaced persons this afternoon to pick up this group and bring them to this event, which focused on building peace among religious groups

Hosting this event was a Kurdish women’s organization, called the Ashti Group.  The speakers included persons from four religious groups among Iraqi Kurds— An Ezidi, a member of the Kaka’i, (a Kurdish minority religion), a Muslim, and a Christian.  They each urged us not to judge people from other religions, but to live together in tolerance and harmony.  Their message was not theoretical but spoke to a real need of a society racked with ethnic violence.

Far right: Kurdish team colleague Parween Aziz; next to her, Peggy Gish.  Second from left,
 Nyan Mohammad, plus four Ezidi friends

MEDITERRANEAN: Writings on the wall

In one of the events that I participated in on the Greek island of Lesvos, I had the chance to see many writings migrants made to hang on the walls of the welcome center in Pipka. A piece of paper on the wall may not be a detailed story but what I saw delivered their pain. Here are some written by migrants from Afghanistan, Iran, Syria, Sudan and other war-torn countries:

A handmade poster by a Syrian refugee

Prayers for Peacemakers September 25, 2014

Prayers for Peacemakers September 25, 2014

Pray for the refugees and migrants caught up in the Greek court system, where they do not receive even the semblance of a fair hearing.

Epixel* for Sunday, September 21, 2014
Court in Mytilene, Lesvos
If then there is any encouragement in Christ, any consolation from love, any 
sharing in the Spirit, any compassion and sympathy,  
make my joy complete: be of 
the same mind, having the same love, being in full accord and of one mind. 
Philippians 1:1-2
*epixel: a snapshot-epistle to the churches related to and appearing with a text from the upcoming Sunday's Revised Common Lectionary readings.

IRAQI KURDISTAN REFLECTION: The new military intervention in Iraq—on not repeating what has not worked

 

 
 Yazidi refugees driven from their homes by ISIS

For many Americans, President Obama, with his latest plan to expand U.S. military intervention in Iraq, is finally “doing something.”  And people here in Iraqi Kurdistan are generally hopeful that this will stop the militant fighters calling themselves “the Islamic State,” or for the purposes of this article, ISIS.  I keenly feel the pain of the people here and do not want any more persons brutalized, yet I believe Obama’s plan will not diminish global terrorism; it will only expand and strengthen it.

It is helpful to remember that ISIS’s ability to capture areas of Iraq was possible because of the U.S. had destroyed its society and supported the Shia government that excluded Sunni populations, subjecting them to widespread loss of jobs, attacks, mass arrests, torture and extra-judicial killings.

While our team lived and worked in Baghdad, the U.S. and Iraqi forces bombed and destroyed whole neighborhoods and cities in the name of anti-terrorism, generating more anger toward America.  The U.S. failed to support the progressive, mostly nonviolent, uprisings, around the country, against government abuse and corruption.  Throughout the years of occupation, it was clear to us that U.S. military actions in Iraq were not really directed at protecting the Iraqi people, but for protecting American personnel and U.S. economic and military interests in Iraq and the Middle East.  Then, in early August of this year, U.S. military strikes were, once again, less for protecting religious and ethnic minorities in Iraq than protecting U.S. diplomats and the large oil companies developing oil fields in the Kurdish region.

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Israeli military locates and kills suspects in kidnappings and murders of three Israeli youth

 

 
 photo @alaaqawasmi

Early this morning, Tuesday, 23 September 2014, the Israeli military discovered the hiding place of and killed Amer Abu Aisha and Marwan Qawasmeh, the two suspects in the kidnapping and killing of the three Israeli settler youth in June.

The killing took place on the first floor of a wood factory in the Hai El Sharma neighborhood near Hebron University after a firefight.  The building has three floors:  the first is a wood factory; the second contains shops and the third is residential.  Due to the live ammunition, small bombs, and tear gas thrown into the building by the soldiers, a fire started, which burned one of the two suspects almost beyond recognition.  The blasts from the bombs, and the military tractor used to cave in the building also damaged adjoining homes and buildings.

Firing Zone 918 Interactive Report

Links to resources and published articles:

Al Rajabi Building

Hebron Rehabilitation Committee Statement UN: Settler Violence Interviews with the neighbouring families Legal Analysis Appeal UN: Settlements are an obstacle to peace 'Peace Now' Article 2007 Occupation Image Map
Hebron Rehabilitation Committee Statement | UN: Settler Violence | Interviews with the neighbouring families | Legal Analysis | Appeal | UN: Settlements are an obstacle to peace | 'Peace Now' Article | 2007 Occupation | Image Map

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON) URGENT ACTION: Prevent new settlement outpost, increased settler violence in Hebron

teaser_field: 

CPT calls supporters around the world to ask their government officials to persuade Israeli authorities to prevent a new settlement in Hebron and avoid the associated violence and disruption to Palestinians that it would bring.

CPTnet
24 October 2012
AL-KHALIL (HEBRON) URGENT ACTION: Prevent new settlement outpost, increased settler violence in Hebron 

Since our 3 October report there have been a number of developments regarding the Al Rajabi Building in Hebron. On Tuesday, 16 October the Jerusalem District Court accepted the injunction to freeze the implementation of the 13 September ruling that the Israeli military and police must allow the settlers to move in within thirty days, until a final decision regarding the appeal at the Supreme Court. This decision means that the settlers should not be able to move into the building immediately as we had feared. It did however come at a cost, which is a 100,000NIS/ 26,115USD bond that has to be paid by the Palestinian owner of the building.

It is feared though that due to the early election that has been called in Israel, the court decision may be decided for political reasons rather than it being a fair trial. CPT is working closely with UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the Hebron Rehabilitation Committee (HRC) and others to stop settlers from occupying the building and to show the consequences for Palestinians the last time the settlers occupied the house. Palestinians in the West Bank face settler violence regularly. According to OCHA, “settler violence is a regular occurrence, targeting primarily Palestinian civilians and their property, but also IDF soldiers.” Such violence, OCHA points out, “is not random criminal activity; in most cases, it is ideology-driven, organized violence, the goal of which is to assert settler dominance over an area.” CPT Hebron believes that the settlers' intention to occupy the Al Rajabi building is motivated by this ideology which would create territorial continuity between the Kiryat Arba settlement and settlements in the center of the Old City. We fear this will lead to more detentions and greater restrictions of movement for Palestinians living in the area.

 
 

photo courtesy Land Research Center

CPT recently interviewed four families who live close to the Al Rajabi Building and Kiryat Arba settlement. All reported numerous experiences of harassment and violence from settlers living in the area since the inception of the Kiryat Arba. They expressed fear of this violence increasing if settlers were allowed to reoccupy the Al Rajabi Building. Their fear was based on their experience of increased settler violence when settlers occupied the building in 2007-2008.

One man told the CPTers, “in 2007 settlers took over a house in the area. They were violent and threw stones at Palestinians passing in order to scare them and make them move out of the area.”

A mother spoke of the problems she experienced. “During this time, settlers were violent towards us and our children. They burnt houses and tried to break into our home. I’m extremely nervous because the girls must walk past the Rajabi building in order to get to school.”

A father spoke out: “I recall that from about March 2007 to December 2008, there were frequent attacks from settlers to the Palestinian men, women and children.”

The families are asking for help in their cause: “We are pleading to all those that will listen to stop this. If settlers were to come back again we will face the same issues again. This time was very stressful for us, it put a strain on our family relations.”

The decision the courts reach about the Al Rajabi Building will greatly influence the future of the city of Hebron, particularly for these families. HRC and CPT have put together a statement along with a legal analysis of the proceedings. CPT Al-Khalil (Hebron) calls on supporters to share this information with people locally and to contact your Members of Parliament or Congress and other government officials about this issue.

SAMPLE TEXT FOR MESSAGE:

Dear _____,

The international community is gravely concerned about the effects of allowing settlers to reoccupy the Al Rajabi Building in Hebron, West Bank. In 2007 and 2008, when settlers last occupied this house, settler violence and disruptions to Palestinians in the area increased.

The four small settlements already inside Hebron have caused immense physical, social and economic suffering for local Palestinians. Another settlement would cause greater suffering and would work against the roadmap towards peace.

Please urge Israeli authorities to prevent the formation of a new Israeli settlement in Hebron’s Al-Rajabi Building.

Sincerely,

____

ADDRESSES

Canada:

Embassy in Tel Aviv -- The Canadian Embassy, PO Box 9442, Tel Aviv 67060, Israel. Fax: (011 972 3) 636-3380. Email: taviv@dfait-maeci.gc.ca

Prime Minister Stephen Harper, Office of the Prime Minister, 80 Wellington Street, Ottawa, K1A 0A2. Fax: 613-941-6900 or Email: pm@pm.gc.ca

You can mail your MP at the House of Commons address, or find their email address, go to http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/about/people/house/PostalCode.asp?Source=SM

UK:

Embassy in Tel Aviv -- British Embassy, 192 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv 63405, Israel. Fax: (+972 3) 527 8574. Email: webmaster.telaviv@fco.gov.uk

Prime Minister David Cameron, 10 Downing Street, London SW1A 2AA. To email the Prime Minister go to http://www.number10.gov.uk/contact-us/

Foreign Secretary William Hague, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Downing Street West, London Sw1A 2AL

Mail your MP at the House of Commons, London SW1A 0AA. To email your MP, MSP or MEP go to http://www.writetothem.com/

USA:

Embassy in Tel Aviv -- US Embassy, 71 Hayarkon Street, Tel Aviv 63903, Israel

President Barack Obama, 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20500

Senators: http://www.senate.gov/general/contact_information/senators_cfm.cfm

Representatives: http://www.house.gov/

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AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Peace and good neighbors, not another settlement outpost

teaser_field: 

CPT Al-Khalil (Hebron) invites informed prayers after a Jerusalem magistrate's approval of a new illegal Israeli settlement outpost in what amounts to an "application of Israeli sovereignty" over this occupied city.

CPTnet
3 October 2012
AL-KHALIL (
HEBRON): Peace and good neighbors, not another settlement outpost

When Israeli Settlers move into a house in Hebron, it often restricts Palestinians’ freedom of movement and leads to an increase in Settler Violence. A house occupied by Settlers can mean that a road is closed to Palestinians, who then face much longer journeys to school and work; it can mean additional soldiers in an area and more harassment and detentions.

It is no wonder then that at the moment there is a lot of worry about the House of Contention on Gaaber Street. Settlers originally occupied this house in 2007. Settler violence quickly ensued when the Settlers faced an eviction order after police found that some of the papers they had used to prove they had bought the house were forgeries. The Settlers appealed the eviction to the Israeli Supreme Court, but the court rejected their petition.

If some crucial papers were found to be forgeries and the High Court rejected their appeal, why did the Jerusalem Magistrate’s Court rule on 13 September that the house belongs to the Settlers and that their buying of the house was ‘Kosher’? All Israeli Settlements in the West Bank are recognized by the UN as being illegal under international law. The Jerusalem Magistrate Court has just given the green light to people to settle illegally in the West Bank.

 

When we speak of Israeli Settlers we are not talking about people who wish to come and be neighbors of the Palestinians, rather we are talking about people who wish to apply Israeli Sovereignty over the West Bank.

CPT Al-Khalil asks supporters to please read the Hebron Rehabilitation Committee statement and join us in prayer that illegal settlements in the West Bank will stop and one day Palestinians can walk and drive all over Hebron without the interference of the Israeli Defense Forces and Settlers.

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Al Bowereh

Al Bowereh is a northeastern neighborhood of Hebron (Al-Khalil in Arabic) that lies directly opposite Givat Harsina, one of the four neighborhoods of the settlement Kiryat Arba. The area has a population of approximately 340 people, including 174 under the age of eighteen. Israeli settlers have constructed the outpost named Hilltop 26 on Palestinian farmland, and the outpost is considered  illegal under both international and Israeli law. Settlers have erected seven buildings in the outpost. They regularly attack Palestinians living there, including children as they walk to and from school. This harassment takes the form of stone throwing, physical assault, the uprooting of grape vines and destruction of other crops, vandalism, and intimidation. In addition, due to the proximity of Road 60 and the settlement, the Israeli military has placed demolition orders on almost all of the remaining homes in Al Bowereh

 

Role of CPT

Since November 2009, CPT has provided a consistent protective presence in the area, especially for the children returning home from school. Because there are currently 174 residents under the age of 18 in Al Bowereh, CPT’s accompaniment of the vulnerable school children is crucial. Normally, CPTers will arrive in Al Bowereh around 12:30 p.m. as the first batch of school children are arriving to walk home.  CPTers then accompany the children to a safe point. They repeat this process until 2:45 p.m. when the last group of school children arrive. If any settlers are present, CPT attempts to deter violence and documents the details from the encounter.

CPT’s Palestine team also visits at-risk families in the area to build relationships and gather information. Since the beginning of CPT’s work in Al Bowereh, the team has visited the area every one to two weeks along with peace and human rights activist Hani Abu Haikel, asking the neighbors for an update on the status of the community, and checking for expansion of the Kiryat Arba settlement outpost. Team members report any developments in the outpost to Settlement Watch and other peace and human rights monitoring groups.

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CPT Palestine in the News

Featured article

by CPTer Jane Adas

Israeli-Imposed Apartheid Almost Complete in West Bank City of Hebron

Documentary

by CPT Volunteer Gerry O'Sullivan

"Stolen Lives"

Latest Update: 

Articles

Al-Khalil (Hebron): Israeli Military Demolishes Dairy Farm
International Middle East Media Center

Palestinians Under Attack in Hebron
Mennonite World Review

Palestinians Under Attack in Hebron
Haaretz

The Two Sides of a Barbed-Wire Fence
New York Times

The Palestinian struggle for justice
The National Catholic Reporter

Israel destroys diary farm in occupied Palestine
Mondoweiss

“Under Attack”; the Golani Brigades’s treatment of Palestinians in Al-Khalil/Hebron
Mondoweiss

This is my Land...Hebron
Documentary Film

 

 

Magazine Feature

CPTer: Rev. Inger Styrbjörn: Page 43

 

Overview of article

Västerås Diocesan is a Swedish Magazine, published twice a year, with a distribution of 6,000 copies aimed at diocesan officials and employees. Editor Pelle Söderbäck took interest in me because, before my retirement, I was a member of the Clergy. I took him around the Old City and Al-Bowereh during a spring 2011 visit in Hebron.

I live with two cultures contrasts my work with CPT in Hebron with my life at home in Sweden. The Letter from Abraham’s city is a reflection about CPT’s everyday work – school patrol and a house demolition I witnessed.

 

 

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Hebron / al-Khalil

About CPT Hebron/al-Khalil

At the invitation of the Hebron municipality, CPTers set up a project in 1995 to address assaults by Israeli settlers and soldiers on Palestinians in the months before the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.  In subsequent years, the team’s focus has included the Israeli military confiscation of Palestinian land, demolition of Palestinian homes, and the violence stemming from the Second Intifada.

Hebron/Al-Khalil (map) is located 30 km (19 mi) south of Jerusalem, and is home to around 165,000 Palestinians, as well as 500 Israeli settlers concentrated in Hebron’s Old City. 

The Oslo 2 Hebron protocol partitioned Hebron/Al-Khalil into two distinct zones, H1 and H2.  H1 is administered by the Palestinian Authority and contains 120,000 Palestinians.  In H2, which includes  the heart of Hebron's Old City, the Israeli military restricts the movement of more than 30,000 Palestinians while allowing 500 Jewish settlers to move freely.

CPT maintains an active nonviolent presence in the H2 zone of Hebron/Al-Khalil focusing on accompaniment, documentation, and human rights reporting. 

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Latest Update: 

Al-Khalil / Hebron Media Package Now Available

31 July 2012

CPT Palestine has compiled a comprehensive presentation of the team’s current work in Hebron in the form of a media package

The package, modeled after a previous one on Al Bowereh, gives a detailed overview of CPT’s work in Hebron including a history of the area. 

The team has found that the distribution of these media packages, combined with advocacy efforts, supports its efforts in nonviolent resistance to the Israeli occupation. 

Shortly after the release of the Al Bowereh package, Israeli authorities dismantled the illegal settlement there. After distribution of Under Attack: the Golani Brigade’s war on the Palestinian population of Al-Khalil/Hebron, this abusive brigade left Hebron earlier than expected. 

Team members can use the media packages to shape or supplement public presentations on CPT Palestine. Powerpoint versions of both media packages are available through palestine-advocacy@cpt.org.

Hebron Media Package

Most recent CPTnet story: 

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Israeli military locates and kills suspects in kidnappings and murders of three Israeli youth

 

 
 photo @alaaqawasmi

Early this morning, Tuesday, 23 September 2014, the Israeli military discovered the hiding place of and killed Amer Abu Aisha and Marwan Qawasmeh, the two suspects in the kidnapping and killing of the three Israeli settler youth in June.

The killing took place on the first floor of a wood factory in the Hai El Sharma neighborhood near Hebron University after a firefight.  The building has three floors:  the first is a wood factory; the second contains shops and the third is residential.  Due to the live ammunition, small bombs, and tear gas thrown into the building by the soldiers, a fire started, which burned one of the two suspects almost beyond recognition.  The blasts from the bombs, and the military tractor used to cave in the building also damaged adjoining homes and buildings.

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON) REFLECTION: Peacemaking--a journey taken step by step

 Corey in Old CIty
  CPTer aspiring to be peacemaker while monitoring
 soldiers in Hebron's Old City.

I am an aspiring peacemaker.

I use the word “aspiring” because I have not yet fully embraced in thought and action the ideals of peacemaking that I find so compelling. Practicing it is a constant daily effort, a series of taking steps (sometimes forward, sometimes backward), falling, getting up, and trying again. Overall, I think I’ve taken more steps forward than backward, but my peacemaking journey is far from complete. It is a lifelong quest. 

Stepping into Conflict

I have been in many places where oppression is evident. It is in Palestine, however, where I have seen most clearly the systematic dehumanization of people by other people, in both subtle and obvious ways, every day, day after day.Watching interactions between Palestinians and Israelis has challenged me and my peacemaking ideals to the core. How do I express my anger in a way that doesn’t dehumanize those I accuse of dehumanizing others? How do I acknowledge the destructive forces of a system while acknowledging that the people who by choice or by birth are part of that system are children of God? How do I live in community with others during difficult circumstances?  

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Revenge devoid of purpose—punitive demolitions of Palestinian homes


 If Israel’s assault on Gaza this summer has been blind, primal violence on a macro scale, the demolition of three Palestinian apartment blocks in Hebron during the early hours of 18 August 2014—punitive retaliation against the suspected culprits in the kidnapping of three Israeli youth in June—represented pointless violence and suffering on a micro scale.  Yet that micro event, multiplied thousands of times over the days, weeks and years of occupation, adds up to what has been called “incremental genocide” in the sense of destroying a culture and its ability to survive.

Between 2001-2005, according to B’tselem figures, Israel demolished 664 Palestinian homes as forms of punishment.*  These demolitions displaced 4,182 innocent people, many of them neighbors of the suspect’s family, and occurred often on the basis of suspicion alone.

Hussam al-Qawasmi house (Photo: Yousef Natsheh)

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Israeli Military displaces family, stones observers, shuts down Old City for midnight settler tour

In the first week of August, the Israeli military added to the normal hardships people who live in and around the area of Hebron’s Old City must endure.

On 1 August 2014, the Israeli military occupied the rooftop of the al-Rajabi house in Jebal Johar near the Israeli settlement of Kiryat Arba at approximately 6 p.m.  According witnesses, the Israeli soldiers left the rooftop at around 7:00 p.m. and fired five tear gas grenades into the home, setting the interior into flames.  The result was a total loss of the family’s personal items. 

 Seven Palestinians live in the home. Five children, four boys and girl are now homeless. 

AL-KHALIL (HEBRON): Settlers break into Palestinian shops

n 30 July 2014, Israelis entered into Palestinian shops in Hebron’s Old City near Beit Hadassah with industrial tools, using cutting blades and torches to open the doors, despite the presence of Israeli military security who were overlooking the shops.

Christian Peacemaker Teams and the International Solidarity Movement volunteers made several attempts to advise the Israeli military and police to intervene on the breaking and entering into the Palestinian shops. Despite showing the Israeli military video evidence of the account, the police failed to show up and intervene.

The following day, Israeli settler children during the afternoon threw rocks down from the Beit Hadassah settlement onto Palestinians walking on the street below the settlement. Later on that night, settlers again re-entered the property despite the Israeli military having designated the area a closed military zone for Israeli settlers and Palestinians alike.


Settler jumps on awning after throwing stones at Palestinians
and internationals
event_view: 
Title Start: End:
Palestine/Israel Delegation Thu, 10/09/2014 Wed, 10/22/2014
Palestine/Israel Delegation Sat, 11/29/2014 Sun, 12/14/2014

About CPT Hebron

The Work of CPT in Hebron/Al-Khalil

 

CPT maintains an active nonviolent presence in the H2 (Old City) zone of Hebron/Al-Khalil in addition to providing accompaniment to various communities in the greater Hebron/Al-Khalil region. Our work includes:

An Active Nonviolent Presence: CPT maintains a presence in the H2 area of Hebron in an effort to deter violence and to decrease the incidents of harassment and mistreatment.  CPT conducts daily patrols in areas in and around the Old City where there is a heavy presence of the Israeli military and Israeli settlers.  

Accompaniment: In addition to a continuous presence in the H2 (Old City) area of Hebron/Al-Khalil, CPT also provides accompaniment for communities in the Hebron Governate, such as the neighborhood of Al-Bweireh and Al-Beqa'a Valley, among others.  CPT provides accompaniment to schoolchildren in H2 and Al-Bweireh who are subject to searches and harassment as they pass through Israeli checkpoints and walk near Israeli settlements.  CPT also accompanies farmers in outlying areas who face land confiscation, harassment, and property damage.

Projects and Activities: At times, CPT focuses on specific projects to respond to crises or to support important initiatives proposed by the local community and Palestinian and Israeli peace and human rights groups.  Some of ongoing activities include visits to homes at risk of demolition and to areas facing land confiscation; visits to schools and civil society representatives to introduce CPT and its daily activities to local people,and regular meetings with a representative and diverse advisory committee comprising Palestinians from Hebron/Al-Khalil.

Documentation and Promoting Awareness: In hopes of increasing awareness of the situation in Hebron/Al-Khalil, CPTers photograph, videotape, and document violent incidents and human rights violations as they occur.  Through regular reports and releases, the team provides regular updates to CPT’s worldwide network as well as to local and international media.

Report: "Under Attack" by CPT Al-Khalil (Hebron)

Al-Khalil (Hebron), Palestine, 

Since the arrival of the Golani Brigade in Hebron on December 27th, international accompaniment organizations (Christian Peacemaker Teams and International Solidarity Movement, and others) have documented an increase in the number of serious human rights violations against the Palestinian people, particularly youth and children in the Old City and Tel Rumeida.

All recorded incidences have been documented through first-hand observation and/ or testimony from the victims. The following report demonstrates a sharp increase in harassment, violence, and human rights violations by the Israeli military towards the Palestinian population of Hebron. Contrary to given justifications, none of those involved were observed to voice or pose any threat to the soldiers. As the Golani Brigade is expected to remain in Hebron another two to five months, members of these international observer organizations fear that such abuses will escalate and make life unbearable for the Palestinians living under occupation in Hebron.

1. Incidences involving the detention, intimidation, abuse, or arrest of children and youth.

Tuesday, January 3rd: Fifteen Golani soldiers, looking for children that were throwing stones, came up to a group of children who were playing outside in the Tel Rumeida neighborhood. They started to arrest a 15 year old boy, when family members, elderly people, and women came out onto the street.   The soldiers then began to hit a woman, a three year old boy, and a 70 year old man.  The soldiers then shot 3 sound grenades and detained two men.  They took the two men to the military base and held them for two hours.

Saturday, January 7th: Patrolling Golani entered an internet cafe in the Old City and made an apparently arbitrary arrest of a young teenager for not having his ID.

Thursday, January 12th: Golani dragged a developmentally disabled young man into an alley and hit him repeatedly after he knocked on the checkpoint door after they closed it in front of him. This occurred near his home next to the Quiton checkpoint.  His father ran out of the house and came to the alley, and the soldiers stopped and let the boy go.  That same evening, the soldiers attacked his mother and beat the boy with nightsticks and their fists in the family’s home.  The boy’s brother heard a noise and came downstairs.  The soldiers then grabbed him and beat him in the same way.  They threw him to the ground and searched him, and then began to beat his head with their rifles.  They then took both boys to the police station where they held them for an hour and a half.  They then took the developmentally disabled young man home and transported his brother to Jabara prison.  He was released later that night and his family took him to the hospital.  His skull was cracked and he had cuts from the rifles which required stitches, and for some time he could not move his hands.

 

Friday, January 20th: Golani held a 10 and 12 year-old boy behind the gate of the Beit Romano settlement. Soldiers told witnesses and family members, who were present outside the gates of Beit Romano Settlement, that the boys were detained for throwing rocks.  A witness said the boys had been wearing ski masks because of the cold weather, but had not been throwing rocks. When the parents of the boys arrived to the gate of the settlement, the soldiers approached them and gave them a list containing the names of five other boys from the Old City, saying that if the parents brought those boys to the gate, the soldiers would release the other two. The two boys were eventually released to the parents.  

Saturday, January 21st:  During the settlers’ tour, around 4pm, the Golani took the 15 year old brother of the two detained boys from his house and detained him. He was released later that day.  

Thursday, February 2nd: Fifteen Golani soldiers detained two children, ages 12 and 13, for about 45 minutes on Shuhada Street near the entrance to the Muslim cemetery.  Later, 6 of the soldiers took the boys up through the cemetery to the military base. In all, they were held for about 2 hours. Both boys are too young to have IDs.

Saturday, February 4th:  Eight Golani soldiers in Bab al Baladia grabbed four boys who were about nine years old and took them into an alley. They claimed the boys had thrown a stone. No witnesses saw who threw the stone. International observers told the soldiers that the boys were not old enough to be arrested and the soldier replied that in that case he would “arrest their fathers.” They released the boys 30 minutes later.

Monday February 6th: Six soldiers came to Quortuba School in Tel Rumeida as school was letting out. They grabbed two eleven year old boys and detained them, telling them that they would be arrested for throwing stones. Several teachers and the principal of the school told the soldiers that they boys were not throwing stones. The soldiers told the boys, the principal, and teachers that “we will let the boys go this time, but if they ever threw stones against the Israeli people again, we will arrest them and cause problems for your entire school.”

During the calendar month of January 2012, international observers witnessed a sharp increase in the number of Palestinian teenage and school age boy’s body-searched by Israeli forces, who had reportedly agreed that soldiers would not search bags of children attending school. This number has not been documented through the course of this report but is clear to observers on the ground. Furthermore, according to residents, compared to previous brigades stationed in Hebron, the Golani have greatly increased this type harassment.

2. Incidences in which Golani soldiers arbitrarily detained Palestinians and/or  denied them access to roads or walkways.

Wednesday, December 28th: A Golani soldier prevented several members of the Youth Against Settlements organization from walking down a path from their center towards their homes. The soldier claimed that this prevention was because settlers were walking up the path, though none were seen, and further explained, “They must wait when anyone walks past. Even if a dog walks, they must wait.”

Friday, January 6th: A soldier stopped a 19 year old resident of Shuhada Street and ordered him to show what was in his boots, unzip his jacket, and put his face and hands against the wall.  When the soldier began to hit the man, a neighbor and internationals ran up and began filming and the soldier stopped, and instead detained the man and his neighbor for about 15 minutes.  The 19 year old said that the same soldier had stopped him to check his ID four times in one week. 

Saturday, January 7th: Golani soldiers held a Palestinian for over three hours at Checkpoint 56.  The soldier explained that he was detaining the man because “he did not like him.”  The two soldiers at the check point continuously reminded the Palestinian man of his detainment by asking him, “How long have you been here?” and forced him to urinate where he stood rather than allowing him to leave.

Tuesday, January 17th: Golani patrolled through the busy Palestinian market in midday. As they marched, they forced everyone to stand aside and randomly stopped two Palestinian men to check their identifications. The younger man had to stand with his hands raised high on the wall for the six minutes it took to check his ID.

Monday, January 23rd: Golani enter into H1 to search cars in Haret i-Sheik.

Monday, January 23rd: Golani denied a Palestinian man access to return to his home in the Old City because they said access was closed after 9pm. Internationals observed the soldiers denying the Palestinian man access to multiple checkpoints, forcing him to walk back and forth between them carrying a heavy sack for 40 minutes. The soldiers insisted it was the man’s own fault, but finally relented and took the man on an alternative route.

Tuesday, January 24th: Golani soldiers stopped the Abu Aisha family at Gilbert Checkpoint as they were on their way home and refused to allow them through the checkpoint.  They did not tell the family why they were not allowed to pass through the checkpoint to reach their house.  After some time, they told the family to take a much longer route home

Tuesday, January 24th: Soldiers harassed people as they entered Checkpoint 56 by “playing” with the electric doors of the container box. After people entered into the checkpoint, the soldiers prevented them from continuing part-way through. They soldiers closed all the doors in the checkpoint while the people were inside, and then opened and closed the second door repeatedly. Finally the soldiers opened the door from which the people entered, forcing them out the same way they came.

Monday, January 30th: Golani soldiers held a man outside in very cold rain for one hour because he was fixing the satellite on his own roof. They told him that they had seen him on his roof through their camera, and that in the future he would need special permission to be on his roof.

3. Incidences in which Golani have injured and/or threatened detained Palestinians.

Monday, January 9th: A group of Golani in the Old City, walked to a merchant who was sitting at his stand and asked him, “Why are you looking at me like that?” They immediately detained him and bound him with plastic ties, and took him to Avraham Avinu. While in custody, they blindfolded him, slapping him on his head, and detained him for 2½ hours.  

Sunday, January 15th: 6 Golani soldiers entered a home in Tel Rumeida at 12 a.m., forcing the father outside in the cold, while pointing the gun at his head. They then forced the 7 other family members, including 3 children, into one room. The soldiers searched the house for about an hour.   When the Golani left, they told the family, “Next time, look behind you. We will kick you out from the house, and we will take it.”

Two nights later on Tuesday, January 17th, around 1 a.m., eight Golani soldiers shot 3 sound bombs at the outside walls of the same house.

Sunday, January 15th: In the early morning, Golani soldiers sat in a jeep and watched as settlers torched a Palestinian family’s car which was parked in a lot behind Tel Rumeida near the family’s home.  Neighbors witnessed the vandalism from their apartment building which is situated uphill from the parking area about 100 yards away with a clear view of the lot.  The soldiers did nothing to intervene or prevent the settlers from completely burning the car.

Tuesday, January 17th: The Golani entered a man’s home at night, and forced the family to go outside, including their one and a half year old son.  The soldiers hit the father in the head with the butt of a rifle and he later received medical treatment.  International observers read the medical report.

Saturday, January 21st: Eight Golani soldiers invaded the offices of the organization, Youth against Settlements, in Tel Rumeida.  They arrested one of the human rights defenders and leader of the organization.  The soldiers blindfolded him and bound his hands.  They put him against the wall and hit him twice in the stomach. Later, they took him to the military base, held a gun to his head and told him, “You are not safe here and next time we will shoot and kill you.” Afterwards, they marched him through Beit Hadassah and allowed settlers to spit on him and kick him.  The group of settlers chanted “Each Arab dog will have his day.”  The soldiers then took him back to an abandoned house where they released him.

Saturday, January 28th: Six Golani stopped a young man in the morning in the Old City, asking for his ID, which he did not have. He told them he had to go home to get it, and they followed him back to his house. Immediately after showing the soldiers his ID, his hands were tied and his eyes blindfolded. The soldiers ransacked his room, even tearing up his carpet. They took him to Beit Romano, and after one hour, released him onto Shuhada Street.  The young man’s mother told international observers that her son had visible “marks” on his body, evidence of soldier beatings.  

4. Incidences in which the Golani have used religious references to insult, intimidate, or provoke Palestinians.

Sunday, January 7th: Golani mockingly called out the Islamic call to prayer. Just minutes before, they had closed the gate, forcing passersby to listen as the Golani anthem sounded through their loudspeakers.

Friday, December 30th: Two soldiers entered the Ibrahimi Mosque courtyard while Palestinians performed Friday prayers. When asked to leave, they proceeded to the roof top and pointed guns at the crowd of men praying.

Thursday, February 2nd: At 6 p.m., eleven Golani soldiers entered the Al-Qazzazin Mosque near the chicken market in the Old City. They walked into the mosque without removing their boots, and remained there for about 20 minutes.

5. Incidences of Golani soldiers entering Palestinians homes and property:

Monday, January 16th: During night patrol in the Old City, six Golani soldiers invaded a home without a search warrant, claiming a rock was thrown on them from above.

Tuesday, January 17th:  Internationals observed six Golani soldiers attempt to enter a home without a search warrant. The soldiers asked the home owner “Why do you allow tourists on your roof?”

Thursday, January 19th: Golani entered a home without a search warrant, informing the owner of the home that they would come the next day to weld shut her door, which exits on to Shuhada Street. The soldiers have yet to return.

Tuesday, January 24th: Golani entered a home without a search warrant and proceeded to the roof, thereupon crossing over several roofs and entering outdoor spaces belonging to the occupants.

Monday, January 30th: Golani surrounded a Palestinian home on Tel Rumeida, trampling freshly planted vegetables and pointing laser sights at members of the household. Residents report that the Golani have trained in and around their property for twenty days, including frequently shouting and pointing guns at residents, lobbing of sound grenades early in the morning around 3am. On one occasion, the soldiers entered the house to practice home raids.

Wednesday, February 8th: In the early morning hours (approximately 12:30-7:30), an unknown number of Golani soldiers and Israeli border police conducted raids on at least 30 homes in the Old City. They beat in doors and windows with rifles and boots, forced locks with pry-bars, and ransacked or damaged belongings. They ordered a family of 8, including 2 small children, into a single room of the home and forced them to wait for four hours, not allowing them to use the bathroom.  In one case, they locked a developmentally disabled child, who was ill, into a room alone while her family had to wait outside. Other families reported being forced to wait for as long as 4 hours, locked in bathrooms or the cold outside. In another case, two women alone with 5 children were sent out into the street for 4 hours while soldiers broke all of the doors in the house. One man, a father of two children under 4 years of age, reported that soldiers came into his house searching “for rock throwers.”

6. Incidences where the Golani have harassed and/or prevented international observers from documenting human rights violations.

Tuesday, January 3rd:  A tour with Breaking the Silence (an organization of Israeli veterans who share their experiences of occupation) was stopped by soldiers on its way through Shuhada street three times.  Soldiers interrupted the tour at the entrance to the Muslim cemetery, at Checkpoint 56, and at the entrance to the Tel Rumeida settlement.  Each time the soldiers held up the tour for 15 to 20 minutes.  On every occasion, the tour guide called his lawyer and then spoke to the police.

Friday, January 6th: Offering no specific reason, Golani detained a Palestinian and international observers from ISM on a cold night for a total of five hours between Gilbert Checkpoint and Checkpoint 56. When observers responded to a call from a Palestinian man already held for two hours, soldiers demanded their passports. Although the man was released 30 minutes after, soldiers held observers’ passports, effectively detaining them another three hours.

Tuesday, January 10th: A Golani soldier stood by and watched as a settler woman on

Shuhada Street attacked two ISM international activists less than 30 meters away from him. The settler woman grabbed the two internationals by the neck and attempted to choke them. Later, she grabbed a rock and threw it at them, although missing her targets. When the activists reported the incident, police and soldiers began to mock, cat call, and flirt with the international women.

Wednesday, January 11th: Golani arbitrarily stopped the same two ISM members and sexually harassed them by shouting, “You are sucking Arab cock, yes?” and making rude gestures as the women were en route to the police station where they planned to make a report.

Thursday, January 19th: After thoroughly searching an ISM volunteer’s luggage at a checkpoint and failing to find anything notable, Golani attempted to have him arrested for possession of green tea, which they claimed was “drugs.” Although Border Police initially refused, the Golani succeeded in having him arrested by insisting that they had been assaulted by the volunteer farting in the presence of the soldiers.

Saturday, January 21st: Attempting to access the roof, Golani broke through the stairwell door to the CPT apartment.

Tuesday, February 7th: At 5pm, Golani soldiers at Checkpoint 56 arrested an international working with ISM after telling him he could not take photos. He stopped photographing but soldiers had him arrested anyway. They released him after several hours. Later that night, they arrested him again and released him again close to 11:15 p.m.

In conclusion, although this report does not account for every documented case, we believe that the number of documented abuses constitutes only a small portion of what is actually occurring. As these human rights violations continue unabated, Internationals working in Hebron have called for an immediate withdrawal of the Golani Brigade, citing fears that the abuses will continue to escalate and make life unbearable for Palestinian civilians if the Golani remains for the expected two to five months.

Report: Under Attack: Golani Brigade's war on the Palestinian population of Al-Khalil (Hebron)

[NOTE: Since the publication of this report in February, the Golani Brigade have left Al-Khalil/Hebron.] 

 

Al-Khalil (Hebron), Palestine, February 12, 2012

(PDF version attached Below)

Since the arrival of the Golani Brigade in Hebron on 27 December 2011, international accompaniment organizations (Christian Peacemaker Teams, International Solidarity Movement, and others) have documented an increase in the number of serious human rights violations against the Palestinian people, particularly youth and children in the Old City and Tel Rumeida. 

All recorded incidents have been documented through first-hand observation and/or the victims’ testimonies.  The following report demonstrates a sharp increase in harassment, violence, and human rights violations by the Israeli military towards the Palestinian population of Hebron.  Contrary to given justifications, none of those involved were observed to voice or pose any threat to the soldiers.  As the Golani Brigade is expected to remain in Hebron another two to five months, members of these international observer organizations fear that such abuses will escalate and make life unbearable for the Palestinians living under occupation in Hebron. 

1. Incidents involving the detention, intimidation, abuse, or arrest of children and youth. 


Tuesday, January 3rd: Fifteen Golani soldiers approached a group of children playing outside in the Tel Rumeida neighborhood, looking for children that were throwing stones.  They had started to arrest a 15 year-old boy when elders, women, and family members came outside to stop them.  In response, soldiers hit a woman, a 3 year-old boy, and a 70 year-old man before firing three sound grenades and detaining two men.  These men were taken to the military base and held for two hours.

Saturday, January 7th: Patrolling Golani entered an internet cafe in the Old City and made an apparently arbitrary arrest of a young teenager for not having his ID. 

Thursday, January 12th: In the morning, soldiers* dragged a developmentally disabled young man into an alley and hit him repeatedly after he knocked on the mechanized Qitoun checkpoint door, which they kept closing in front of him to tease him.  When his father ran to the alley to help him, the soldiers stopped and released the boy.  That same evening, the Golani soldiers entered the family home next to the checkpoint, attacked his mother, and beat the boy with nightsticks and fists.  The boy’s brother, hearing a noise, came downstairs, where he was grabbed and beaten in the same way.  The soldiers then threw him to the ground, searched him, and beat his head with rifles.  Both boys were brought to the police station where they held were for an hour and a half.  They then released the developmentally disabled young man to his home and transported his brother to Jabara prison, from which he was released later that night.  His family took him to the hospital to receive care for a cracked skull, sutures, and care for his hands, which he could not move.

Friday, January 20th: Golani held a 10 and 12 year-old boy behind the gate of the Beit Romano settlement.  Soldiers told witnesses and family members, who were present outside the gates, that the boys were detained for “throwing rocks.”  A witness said the boys had been wearing ski masks because of the cold weather, but had not been throwing rocks.  When the parents arrived at the gate, soldiers approached them with a list of five other boys from the Old City, saying that if the parents brought them to the gate, their sons would be released.  The parents did not, but the boys were released two hours later.  

Saturday, January 21st:  During the settlers’ tour, around 4 p.m., Golani soldiers took the 15 year-old brother of the two detained boys from his house and detained him.  He was released later that day.  

Thursday, February 2nd: Fifteen Golani soldiers detained two children, ages 12 and 13, for 45 minutes on Shuhada Street near the entrance to the Muslim cemetery.  Later, six of the soldiers brought the boys up through the cemetery to a military base.  In all, they were held for two hours.  Both boys were too young to have IDs.


Saturday, February 4th:  Eight Golani soldiers in Bab il Baladiya grabbed four boys all around the age of nine and detained them in an alley, claiming one of the boys had thrown a stone.  No witnesses saw them throw the stone. International observers told the soldiers that the boys were not old enough to be arrested, and the soldier replied that in that case he would “arrest their fathers.”  They released the boys 30 minutes later.

Monday February 6th:  Six soldiers detained two 11 year-old boys at Qurtuba School in Tel Rumeida as school was letting out, telling them that they would be arrested for throwing stones.  Several teachers and the principal of the school told the soldiers that they boys were not throwing stones.  The soldiers replied, “We will let the boys go this time, but if they ever threw stones against the Israeli people again, we will arrest them and cause problems for your entire school.”

[During the calendar month of January 2012, international observers witnessed a sharp increase in the number of Palestinian teenage and school-age boys body-searched by Israeli forces, who had reportedly agreed that soldiers would not search bags of children attending school.  This number has not been documented in this report but is clear to observers on the ground.  Furthermore, according to residents, the Golani have greatly increased this type harassment, when compared to previous brigades.]

2. Incidents in which Golani soldiers arbitrarily detained Palestinians and/or denied them access to roads or walkways. 

Wednesday, December 28th: A Golani soldier prevented several members of the Youth Against Settlements organization from walking down a path from their center towards their homes.  The soldier claimed that this prevention was because settlers were walking up the path, though none were seen, and further explained, “They must wait when anyone walks past.  Even if a dog walks, they must wait.”

Friday, January 6th: A soldier stopped a 19 year-old resident of Shuhada Street and ordered him to show what was in his boots, unzip his jacket, and put his face and hands against the wall.  When the soldier began to hit the man, a neighbor and internationals observers began to film, after which the soldier stopped, but detained the man and his neighbor another 15 minutes.  The youth said the same soldier had stopped him to check his ID four times in one week.  

Saturday, January 7th: Golani soldiers held a Palestinian for over three hours at Checkpoint 56.  The soldier explained that he was detaining the man because “he did not like him.”  The two soldiers at the check point continuously reminded the Palestinian man of his detention by asking him, “How long have you been here?” and forced him to urinate where he stood rather than allowing him to leave. 

Tuesday, January 17th: Golani patrolled through the busy Palestinian market in H1 at midday.  As they marched, they forced everyone to stand aside and randomly stopped two Palestinian men to check their identifications.  A younger man had to stand with his hands raised high on the wall for six minutes to check his ID. 

Monday, January 23rd: Golani enter into H1 to search cars in Harte i-Sheik. 

Monday, January 23rd: Golani denied a Palestinian man access to his home in the Old City because they said the entrance to the Old City was closed after 9:00 p.m. Internationals observed for 40 minutes, as the soldiers denied him access at multiple checkpoints, forcing him to walk back and forth carrying a heavy sack.  The soldiers insisted it was the man’s own fault, but finally appeared to relent and took the man on an alternative route. 

Tuesday, January 24th: Golani soldiers stopped the Abu Aisha family at Gilbert Checkpoint as they were on their way home and refused to allow them through the checkpoint.  They did not tell the family why they were not allowed to pass.  After some time, they told the family to take a much longer route home, which they did.

Tuesday, January 24th: Soldiers at Checkpoint 56 harassed Palestinians leaving H2 by “playing” with the electric doors of the container box.  After people entered the structure, soldiers closed all the doors simultaneously, trapping them inside, and then opened and closed an exit repeatedly.  Finally, the soldiers opened the door from which the people had entered, forcing them back out the way they had come.

Monday, January 30th: Golani soldiers held a man outside in very cold rain for one hour because he was fixing the satellite on the roof of his house in Tel Rumeida.  They told him that they had seen him on his roof through a camera, and that in the future he would need special permission to be there.

3. Incidents in which Golani have injured and/or threatened detained Palestinians. 

Monday, January 9th: A group of Golani in the Old City approached a merchant sitting at his stand and asked him, “Why are you looking at me like that?”  They immediately detained him, binding him with plastic ties, and took him to Avraham Avinu.  While in custody for 2½ hours, they blindfolded him and slapped him on the head.

Sunday, January 15th: Six Golani soldiers entered a home in Tel Rumeida at 12 a.m., forcing the father outside in the cold, while pointing the gun at his head.  They then forced the seven other family members, including three children, into one room.  The soldiers searched the house for about an hour.  Before leaving the Golani told the family, “Next time, look behind you.  We will kick you out from the house, and we will take it.”

Two nights later on Tuesday, January 17th, around 1 a.m., eight Golani soldiers shot three sound bombs at the outside walls of the same house.
 
Sunday, January 15th: In the early morning, Golani soldiers sat in a jeep and watched as settlers torched a Palestinian family’s car, parked in a lot behind Tel Rumeida near the family’s home.  Neighbors witnessed the vandalism from their apartment building, situated uphill from the parking area about 100 yards away and with a clear view of the lot.  They report that soldiers did nothing to intervene or prevent the settlers from destroying the car.
 
Tuesday, January 17th: The Golani entered a man’s home at night, and forced the family to go outside, including their one and a half year-old son.  The soldiers hit the father in the head with the butt of a rifle, for which he later received medical treatment.  International observers read the medical report.

Saturday, January 21st: Eight Golani soldiers invaded the offices of the Youth Against Settlements organization in Tel Rumeida.  They arrested a human rights defender, who is also the leader of the organization.  The soldiers blindfolded him, bound his hands, put him against the wall, and hit him twice in the stomach.  Later they took him to the military base where they held a gun to his head and told him, “You are not safe here and next time we will shoot and kill you.”  Afterwards, they marched him through Beit Hadassah, allowing settlers to kick and spit on him, while chanting, “Each Arab dog will have his day.”  The soldiers then took him back to an abandoned house where they released him.

Saturday, January 28th: Six Golani stopped a young man in the morning in the Old City to demand his ID, which he did not have.  When he told them he would go home to get it, they followed him back to his house.  Immediately after showing his ID, soldiers tied his hands and blindfolded him.  The soldiers then ransacked his room, even tearing up his carpet.  They took him to Beit Romano and detained him one hour before releasing him onto Shuhada Street.  The young man’s mother told international observers that her son had visible “marks” on his body, evidence of the soldiers’ beatings.  

4. Incidents in which the Golani have used religious references to insult, intimidate, or provoke Palestinians. 

Sunday, January 7th: Golani mockingly shouted the Islamic call to prayer through loudspeakers at Checkpoint 56.  They also closed the gate, forcing passersby to listen to the Golani anthem. 

Friday, December 30th: Two soldiers entered the Ibrahimi Mosque courtyard while Palestinians performed Friday prayers.  When asked to leave, they proceeded to the rooftop and pointed guns at the crowd of men praying. 

Thursday, February 2nd: At 6 p.m., eleven Golani soldiers entered the Al-Qazzazin Mosque near the chicken market in the Old City.  International observers witnessed the soldiers walk into the mosque without removing their boots, shout at Palestinians, and remain there for 20 minutes.

5. Incidents of Golani soldiers entering Palestinians homes and property:

Monday, January 16th: During a night patrol in the Old City, six Golani soldiers invaded a home without a search warrant, claiming a rock was thrown on them from above. 

Tuesday, January 17th:  Internationals observed six Golani soldiers attempt to enter a home without a search warrant.  The soldiers asked the homeowner, “Why do you allow tourists on your roof?”

Thursday, January 19th: Golani entered a home without a search warrant, informing the owner of the home that they would come the next day to weld shut her door, which exits on to Shuhada Street.  The soldiers have yet to return. 

Tuesday, January 24th: Golani entered a home without a search warrant and proceeded to the roof, thereupon crossing over several roofs and entering outdoor spaces belonging to the occupants. 

Monday, January 30th: Golani surrounded a Palestinian home on Tel Rumeida, trampling freshly planted vegetables and pointing laser sights at members of the household.  Residents report that the Golani have trained in and around their property for twenty days, including frequently shouting and pointing laser sighted guns at residents.  They also reported that soldiers fired sound grenades into their yard at 3:00 a.m. and, that on at least one occasion, soldiers entered their house to practice home raids.

Wednesday, February 8th: In the early morning hours (approximately 12:30-7:30 a.m. ), an unknown number of Golani soldiers and Israeli border police conducted raids on at least 30 homes in the Old City.  They beat in doors and windows with rifles and boots, forced locks with pry-bars, and ransacked or damaged belongings.  They ordered a family of eight, including two small children, into a single room of the home, where they were forced to wait for four hours and could not use the bathroom.  In another case, they locked an ill and developmentally disabled child into a room alone while her family had to wait outside.  Two women alone with five children were also sent out into the street for four hours while soldiers broke every door in the house.  One man, a father of two children under 4 years of age, reported that soldiers came into his house searching “for rock throwers.”  Other families reported being forced to wait for as long as four hours locked in bathrooms or outside in the cold.

6. Incidents where the Golani have harassed and/or prevented international observers from documenting human rights violations. 

Tuesday, January 3rd:  A tour with Breaking the Silence (an organization of Israeli veterans who share their experiences of occupation) was stopped by soldiers on its way through Shuhada street three times.  Soldiers interrupted the tour at the entrance to the Muslim cemetery, at Checkpoint 56, and at the entrance to the Tel Rumeida settlement.  Each time the soldiers held up the tour for 15 to 20 minutes.  On every occasion, the tour guide called his lawyer and then spoke to the police. 

Friday, January 6th: Offering no specific reason, Golani detained a Palestinian and international observers on a cold night for a total of five hours between Gilbert Checkpoint and Checkpoint 56.  When observers responded to a call from a Palestinian man already held for two hours, soldiers demanded their passports.  Although the man was released 30 minutes after, soldiers held observers’ passports, effectively detaining them another three hours. 

Tuesday, January 10th: A Golani soldier stood by and watched as a settler woman on Shuhada Street attacked two international activists less than 30 meters away.  The settler woman grabbed the two internationals by the neck and attempted to choke them.  Later, she grabbed a rock and threw it at them, but missed.  When the activists reported the incident, police and soldiers began to mock, cat call, and sexually harass the international women. 

Wednesday, January 11th: When the same two Internationals stopped to observe a detention, on their way to make a police report, Golani detained and again sexually harassed them.  They shouted, “You are sucking Arab cock, yes?” and made rude gestures in front of a crowd of Palestinians.

Thursday, January 19th: After thoroughly searching international observer’s luggage at a checkpoint and failing to find anything notable, Golani attempted to have him arrested for possession of green tea, which they claimed was “drugs.”  Although Border Police initially refused, the Golani succeeded in having him arrested by insisting that they had been assaulted by the volunteer farting in the presence of the soldiers.

Saturday, January 21st: Attempting to access a roof, Golani broke through the stairwell door to the international observers’ office and apartment.

Tuesday, February 7th: At 5:00p.m., Golani soldiers at Checkpoint 56 arrested an international observer after telling him there was a “new law” prohibiting the filming or photography of soldiers.  He stopped photographing, but soldiers had him arrested anyway “for interfering with military operations.”  They released him after their own video refuted the allegations.  Later that night they arrested him again, and detained another observer for one and a half hours—also for supposedly taking photos.  Both were released close to 11:30 p.m.

In conclusion, although this report does not account for every documented case, we believe that the number of documented abuses constitutes only a small portion of what is actually occurring.  As these human rights violations continue unabated, internationals observers working in Hebron have called for an immediate withdrawal of the Golani Brigade.  If the Golani remain for another two to five months, abuses will likely continue to escalate and make life unbearable for Palestinians of Hebron.

 

*Israeli Border Police

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Statements of Support

Dow Marmur is Rabbi Emeritus of Holy Blossom Temple in Toronto, one of the largest Reform Judaism congregations in the world. He is also past Executive Director of the World Union for Progressive Judaism, in Jerusalem.

"Genuine Testimony"

I met A. a few years ago in Toronto. He told me then that in his retirement he spends a couple of months every year in Hebron with Christian Peacemaker Teams (CPT). Over the years we've met in Jerusalem on a Sunday when he came to church, at times in the company of other team members. Like A., they're religious women and men belonging to different denominations within the Church and beyond.

CPT has been active in different conflict zones in the world. It came to Hebron in 1995, as its brochure has it, "in order to maintain a violence-deterring presence between Israeli settlers, soldiers and Palestinians." Its work, therefore, isn't very different from what Israeli groups such as Machsom (checkpoint) Watch, Breaking the Silence, Rabbis for Human Rights and many similar are doing. Indeed, CPT is in touch with them.

CPT's mission statement says: "Because we believe in a God of mercy and justice, we are not neutral about situations where one group is being oppressed by another. We do not affiliate ourselves with any particular political agenda, but we do believe that it is our calling as Christians to stand in solidarity with the downtrodden in conflict situations. We are totally opposed to violence as a means, regardless of our opinion of the perpetrators and victims in any given incident. We believe that both violent and unjust acts demean the image of God in human beings."

CPT activities in the old city of Hebron that's currently under Israeli administrative control include: "visits to homes at risk of demolition and/or land confiscation; visits to schools to introduce CPT and our school patrol activity; accompaniment of farmers at planting times; and the monitoring of Israeli soldiers as they search homes."

What A. and his friends had to tell me about conditions in Hebron confirms what I saw with my own eyes when I visited a year or so ago. The army is there to protect the settlers and little else. Some of the settlers, imbued with a perverted version of Jewish religious nationalism, are a menace to their neighbors and an embarrassment to Judaism. Palestinians are often without protection. CPT and similar organizations operating in Hebron are there as witnesses. Their aim is to inhibit settlers from attacking Palestinians.

Though I must admit at being suspicious of "do-gooders" from outside, I'm prepared to make an exception for CPT. Not only are the volunteers I've met women and men of highest integrity who in their working life (often as clergy, educators or members of religious orders) contributed much to society but, talking to them, I was left with the impression that they recognize the complexities of the situation and would not issue blanket condemnation of Israelis or express uncritical views of Palestinians.

Their involvement appears to be genuine. They shun lofty proclamations from a safe distance, as so many ostensibly liberal religious groups are prone to do. Instead, they give of their time and money to spend months at a time in Hebron under less than comfortable conditions in order to be of genuine help, not hypocritical grandstanding.

Each time I meet A. and his friends my respect for them grows. Because I know that this kind of activity could not be done by Jewish groups, due to settler "retaliation," I'm grateful to these women and men who're there to testify to values that Jews and Christians share.

Dow Marmur, Jerusalem 14 April 2008

Videos

CPT Hebron Videos

All CPT Hebron videos can be found on the CPTHebron Youtube channel.



A CPTer follows a young Palestinian boy, Yusuf, and his teacher as Yusuf tries to return home after school. Yusuf faces many difficulties reaching his destination due to numerous Israeli military closures. 
Israeli border police hired workers to remove irrigation pipes from vegetable fields in Al Baqa'a Valley and cut twines holding tomato plants up. The border police used tear gas to prevent Palestinian land owners from going to their fields to protest the destruction. Over 100 Palestinians were affected by this destruction. For more information see the press release.

CPT At-Tuwani Videos

All CPT At-Tuwani videos can be found on the AtTuwaniProject Youtube channel.



Children from Tuba and Maghaer Al-Abeed, villages located in the Palestinian territories' South Hebron Hills, attend primary school in the village of At-Tuwani. The children walk on a road passing between the Israeli settlement of Ma'on and the illegal settlement outpost of Havot Ma'on/Hill 833. Armed settlers have harassed and attacked the children on their journeys to and from school.
This video documents the struggle of the people of At-Tuwani to bring electricity to their village. The Israeli occupying forces have systematically denied At-Tuwani the proper permits to legally connect to the Palestinian electrical grid. Only after 8 years of struggle did the Israeli Civil Administration permit At-Tuwani to connect to the electrical grid.


Palestinian schoolchildren provide testimony after a settler from the Israeli outpost of Havat Ma'on (Hill 833) chased and attacked them while the children were walking to school. The Israeli army exposed the children to this attack by arriving more than 90 minutes late to escort the schoolchildren to their school in the village of At-Tuwani.  On the morning of Thursday 7 January 2010, Israeli soldiers attacked and injured Palestinian shepherds from the Musa Rabai family, as they grazed their sheep in Humra valley, near the village of At-Tuwani in the South Hebron Hills. Five members of the family were hospitalized. Before leaving the area, the soldiers arrested one of the shepherds, Musab Musa Rabai. Raba'i was interrogated and tortured for four hours.

Other At-Tuwani Videos

September 2005 - B'Tselem Video: Southern Hebron hills: Life in the shadow of settler violence (English subtitles, 6.2 minutes, 11Mb)

Bibliography

Tip: Use Ctrl-F (the Find Command)
Highly recommended Indicates books most highly recommended.

 

Highly recommendedAbboushi, W.F. The Unmaking of Palestine. Brattleboro, VT. Amana Books, 1990.

Abu-Amir, Ziad. Islamic Fundamentalism in the West Bank and Gaza: Muslim Brotherhood and Islamic Jihad. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.

Abu-Lughod, Ibrahim. ed. Palestinian Rights: Affirmation and Denial. Wilmette, IL: Medina Press, 1982.

Aburishi, Said K. Children of Bethany: The Story of a Palestinian Family. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988.

________. Cry Palestine: Inside the West Bank. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991.

Highly recommendedAbu-Sharif, Bassam and Uzi Mahnaimi. The Best of Enemies: The Memoirs of Bassam Abu-Sharif & Uzi Mahnaimi. Boston:Little, Brown and Company, 1995.
If each of these authors had published separate autobiographies, the results would have been compelling. Told contrapuntally, their stories make more gripping reading than most adventure novels. The fact that these men are of a similar age and have lived through the same events often in the same locations enables the reader to view Middle East history of the last 50 years from an astonishingly broad perspective. As final testimony to the effectiveness of this book I will add that 2 of the 3 copies in the Monroe County Library System have ended up "lost."

Highly recommendedAre, Thomas L. Israeli Peace, Palestinian Justice: Liberation Theology and the Peace Process. Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, 1994.

Highly recommendedArmstrong, Karen. Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1996.

Aronson, Geoffrey. Creating Facts: Israel, Palestinians & the West Bank. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1987.
Good nuts and bolts coverage of the Occupation. Unfortunately, the statistics and maps only go up to the mid-eighties. Aronson quotes extensively from the liberal Israeli press, demonstrating that it is considerably less biased that the U.S. press in regards to the settlement program.

Highly recommendedAruri, Naseer. The Obstruction of Peace: The U.S., Israel, and the Palestinians. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1995.

________. Occupation: Israel Over Palestine. Belmont, MA: AAUG, 1983.

Highly recommendedAshrawi, Hanan. This Side of Peace. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995.
Useful for seeing how the cards have been stacked against the Palestinians in most negotiating situations. Rather sad reading in some ways. Once the Palestinian negotiating team consisted of non-politicians whose main emphasis was human rights and that is no longer the case. It as interesting how Ashrawi was always able to tell when the American negotiators were operating from a State Dept. manual on what Arabs are like. Too bad people still don't see that truth for Palestinians is more important than some "honor/shame" code.

Ateek, Naim. Justice and Only Justice: A Palestinian Theology of Liberation. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1989.
Ateek, an Anglican priest, readjusts the classic Latin American Liberation Theology parameters to fit Palestinian reality, esp. Palestinian Christian reality.

Avishai, Bernard. The Tragedy of Zionism: Revolution and Democracy in the Land of Israel. New York: Farrar, Straus Giroux, 1985.

Highly recommendedAvnery, Uri. My Friend, the Enemy. Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill & Co., 1986.
Avnery is a former member of the Irgun who became one of Israel's most famous peace activists and a member of the Knesset. He makes talking to a bunch of people over the course of a decade pretty gripping reading. Also provides a fascinating behind the scenes look at the development of the PLO and how Israel "never missed an opportunity to miss an opportunity" making peace with it. Two of Avnery's friends. mentioned in the title, Said Hammammi and Issam Sartawi, were eventually assassinated, which makes the whole book poignant from the outset. When I started the book, I was put off by Avnery's self-congratulatory tone. When I finished, I thought he was entitled to it.

Bahbah, Bishara. Israel and Latin America: The Military Connection. New York: St Martin's Press, 1986.

Bailey, Kenneth E. Poet and Peasant and Through Peasant Eyes: A Literary-cultural Approach to the Parables in Luke. Combined edition. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1983. I
did not read this book for this bibliography, but after I finished, I thought this look at parables from perspective of Middle Eastern villagers also provides useful perspective on contemporary politics.

Ball, George W. and Douglas B. The Passionate Attachment: America's Involvement with Israel, 1947 to the Present. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1992.

Bamford, James. The Puzzle Palace: A Report on America's Most Secret Agency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Co., 1982.
Has a brief account of the 1967 Liberty incident in which Israel tried to destroy an American spy ship.

Highly recommendedBeit-Hallahmi, Benjamin. The Israeli Connection: Who Israel Arms and Why. New York: Pantheon Books, 1987.
Beit Hallahmi's thesis is that Israel has supported all the right-wing oppressive regimes throughout the 2/3rds world, because it is terrified of decolonization happening anywhere. The success of any national liberation movement calls into question Israel's domination of the Palestinians. After reading about how the Mossad helped keep the Duvaliers in power in Haiti, I felt my CPT experiences had come full circle.

Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin. Original Sins: Reflections on the History of Zionism and Israel. New York: Olive Branch, 1992.

Bellah, Robert N. and Frederick E Greenspahn. Uncivil Religion: Interreligious Hostility in America. New York: Crossroad, 1987.
The two most relevant essays in the book are Jonathan D. Sarna's "Jewish-Christian Hostility in the United States: Perceptions from a Jewish point of view" and John Murray Cuddihy's "Elephant and the Angels; the Incivil Irritatingness of Jewish Theodicy."

Highly recommendedBennis, Phyllis. From Stones to Statehood. The Palestinian Uprising. New York: Olive Branch, 1992.

Bentwich, Norman. For Zion's Sake: A Biography of Judah L. Magnes. Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1954.

Benvenisti, Meron. City of Stone: The Hidden History of Jerusalem.Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.

Highly recommended________. Conflicts and Contradictions. New York: Random House, 1986.
Perhaps the best attempt by an Israeli to look at the Israeli-Palestinian conflict from both a Palestinian and International point of view (while at the same time not rejecting his own pride in being an Israeli, and noting ways in which his own actions militated against his value system.) This would be a good book to read alongside Said's Politics of Dispossession, partly because he specifically criticizes some of Said's assertions and partly because he sees many of the same things that Said does. Their thinking is actually pretty close.

Highly recommended________. Intimate Enemies: Jews and Arabs in a Shared Land. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.
Benvenisti is almost dispassionate as he recounts the egregious human rights abuses that have grown out of the occupation. He belongs to neither the right nor the left, and blames both equally for the on-going oppression of the Palestinians. I appreciated his putting the conflict in the context of other ethnic conflicts around the world. The one annoying thing about the book is that he quotes people without attribution.

Highly recommended________. Sacred Landscape: The Buried History of the Holy Land Since 1948. trans. Maxine Kaufman-Lacusta. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.
Benvenisti describes, in his typically balanced way, how the Israeli leadership destroyed Palestinian villages, and moved new immigrants into the buildings they left standing, changed Arabic names for places into Hebrew, and Muslim holy sites into Jewish holy sites. He is perhaps uniquely qualified to discuss these issues, because his father was one of the geographers who renamed Palestinian sites in order to link them with names Israel's ancestral homeland. As in his other books, Benvenisti pulls no punches for Israelis, Palestinians or even himself. He ends his analysis of the Palestinian and Israeli struggle for the landscape with the wry observation that the Zionist "struggle for the Land has become the struggle for profitable zoning." In a conclusion that is sure to offend both Israelis and Palestinians, he notes that "after fifty years of struggle for the landscape, the Arabs have become the last of the Zionists." Sacred Landscape is worth purchasing for Benvenisti's epilogue alone, in which he offers creative alternatives to the "all or nothing" attitudes present in current Israeli/Palestinian negotiations. He notes that if the Israeli government were to provide infrastructure to the "unrecognized villages" where Israeli Arab citizens were driven during the 1948 war, give building permits to these citizens, allow restoration of Arab mosques and churches in communities where Jewish immigrants were settled, and compensate Arab owners of land currently being sold by the State to developers, it would set a "precedent for good intentions" and signal that the state of war with the Palestinians is finally over.

Benziman, Uzi. Sharon: An Israeli Caesar. New York: Adama Books, 1985.
Benzimann notes in his preface that many people associated with Sharon over the years refused to talk to him out of fear. He manages to demonstrate that Sharon's handling of the Lebanon war was typical of the way he had always worked within the military and within the government. Interesting that Benzimann never refers to Sharon's raids as terrorist, although Palestinian raids are routinely referred to as such.

Berger, Elmer. Peace for Palestine: First Lost Opportunity. Gainesville: University PRess of Florida, 1993.

Bernards, Neal. The Palestinian Conflict. From the Opposing Viewpoints Juniors series. San Diego: Greenhaven, Press, Inc., 1990.
Although it purports to have an even-handed approach in helping young people identify propaganda, it fails on several counts 1) the cover shows Palestinian boys throwing stones 2) It casts the argument into a Israelis-want-security/Palestinians want a homeland frame, ignoring the fears Palestinians have for their security 3) It cites Joan Peters (p. 13) as a Middle East expert ignoring the fact that Israeli historians have completely discounted her scholarship in her notorious From Time Immemorial.

Binur, Yoram. My Enemy, My Self. London: Doubleday, 1989.
An Israeli Black Like Me.

Block, Gay and Malka Drucker. Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York: TV Books, 1992.
An inspiring book containing interviews with and pictures of Europeans who hid Jews during WWII. Drucker had the integrity to let each rescuer tell his or her own story without putting a spin on feelings of bitterness or personal politics. I was especially interested in the rescuers' views of modern Israel. Some had strongly pro-Zionist sentiments and others couldn't understand why the Israelis persecuted the Palestinians, given the history of anti-semitism.

Bookbinder, Hyman and James G. Abourzek. Through Different Eyes: Two Leading Americans, A Jew and an Arab, Debate U.S. Policy in the Middle East. Bethesda, MD: Adler and Adler, 1987.
Helpful in showing where dialogue regarding the issue generally breaks down and how propaganda becomes internalized. Also shows the futility of bombarding people with facts when their beliefs are driven by feelings.

*Brenner, Lenni. Zionism in the Age of Dictators: A Reappraisal. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 1983.
Details the collaboration of prominent Zionists with Fascist leaders in Europe and the callousness of some of these same leaders toward the European Jews during the Holocaust. Although intended as a stunning indictment of Zionism, the book confirmed my belief that all sorts of nationalism tend to make people cruel or indifferent to the suffering of others not of their nationality.

Butt, Gerald. Life at the Crossroads: A History of Gaza. Essex, England: Rimal, 1995.

Highly recommendedChacour, Elias. Blood Brothers. Tarrytown, NY: Chosen Books, 1984.
Chacour, a Palestinian Catholic-Melkite priest, gives a lucid first person account of what happened to the Palestinian villages within Israel during the 1947-48 war. He has been a strong voice within Israel for Christian-Muslim-Jewish reconciliation.

________ and Mary Jensen. We Belong to the Land. San Francisco: HarperCollins Paperback, 1992.
Covers much of the same biographical information in Blood Brothers, but also has material on Israel's war in Lebanon and and Chacour's work in the last decade.

Chapman, Colin. Whose Promised Land? Oxford: Lion Paperback, 1992. (First published 1983.)

Highly recommendedChertok, Haim. Stealing Home: Israel Bound and Rebound. New York: Fordham University Press, 1988.
I am beginning to discover as of this writing that accounts like Chertok's, i.e. first person perspectives of life in Israel or Palestine are the most useful for understanding the conflict there. It forces the observer to think in terms of people instead of politics. Chertok is an odd combination of a Zionist who believes the diaspora is bankrupt and dying and a leftist who supports, at least theoretically, human rights for Palestinians.

Chomsky, Noam. Class Warfare: Interviews with David Barsamian. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1996.
Section on Israel focusses mostly on U.S. Aid to Israel and American misconceptions about Oslo. 8/99

Highly recommended________. Chronicles of Dissent: Interviews with David Barsamian. Common Courage Press, 1992.
Although there are two sections in this book dedicated to Israel and the Gulf War, references to the U.S.-Israeli relationship occur throughout this collection of interviews. I was particularly interested in Chomsky's description of his Jewish upbringing and of how he is routinely censored by the media powers that be.

_________ and David Barisamian. The Common Good. Berkely, CA: Odonian Press, 1998.
In the Middle East section, Chomsky makes some interesting remarks about the relationship between Israel and the American Jewish community. 8/99

Highly recommended________. The Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel and the Palestinians. Boston: South End Press, 1983.
Densely written and densely footnoted, this book took me three times as long to read as I thought it would. Chomsky confirms my own feeling that the Israeli press is more honest about what is happening in Israel than the American press is. No one is better than Chomsky at cutting through perception to get at what is. Highly recommended.

________. Keeping the Rabble in Line: Interviews with David Barsamian.Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press, 1994.
Less in this book about Israel and Chomsky's Jewish heritage, but it is still useful for putting Chomsky's view on the Middle East in context.

________. Peace in the Middle East: Reflections on Justice and Nationhood. New York: Vintage, 1974.

_________ and David Barsamian. The Prosperous Few and the Restless Many. Berkeley, CA: Odonian Press, 1993.
Covers the Clinton administration's relationship with Israel, Oslo deceptions and Lebanon.

________. World Orders Old and New. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.
The third section of this book is devoted to the Middle East, although reading the first two will help give an economic and political context for U.S. involvement in the Middle East. Punctures the myths of the Oslo peace process.

________. Towards a New Cold War: Essays on the Current Crisis and How We Got There. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

Cockburn, Andrew and Leslie. Dangerous Liaison: The Inside Story of the U.S. Israeli Covert Relationship. New York:HarperCollins Publishers, 1991.
And a mighty sick relationship is is. The Cockburn's use Beit-Hallahmi's book extensively, but also seem to have had a lot of access to American and Israeli intelligence operators. Certain to leave you in a cynical frame of mind.

Cohen, Aharon. Israel and the Arab World. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1970.
Five hundred fifty pages of small print detailing Jewish-Arab relations before, during and shortly after the founding of the State of Israel. Cohen fought in the Ô48 war and figures prominently in Morris's Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Somehow that makes his drive to improve Israeli-Arab relations more poignant. Although his references to Arabs as "backward" made me cringe, he put more blame on the British and the U.S. for preventing cordial relations from developing. For people too impatient to read the whole book, I highly recommend the last chapter which sadly demonstrates that Israeli-Arab relations have not changed much since 1970, when it was written. This is the quote that should be required reading: After citing the Israeli position that Arabs only understand force, Cohen writes, "To be sure, like everyone else, the Arab does not belittle strength, but a demonstration of force will not arouse his respect. Justice, generosity, and openheartedness are more impressive and are more likely to win his trust."

Cooley, John. Payback: America's Long War in the Middle East. Washington, DC: Brassey's 1991.

Corbin, Jane. The Norway Channel: The Secret Talks that Led to the Middle East Peace Accord. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1994.

Cozic, Charles P. Israel: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1994.

Crowe, David M. A History of the Gypsies of Estern Europe and Russia. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994.
Gives a short account in each chapter of what happened to the Gypsies when the Nazis took over these countries.

Highly recommendedCurtiss, Richard H. A Changing Image: American Perceptions of the Arab-Israeli Dispute. Washington, DC: American Educational Trust, 1986
. Although Curtiss lets US policymakers off the hook a bit too easily (with the exception of Kissinger and Haig), the book provides a fascinating behind the scenes account of U.S. dealings with Israel since it became a state. Because Curtiss was a State Department employee from 1951 on, he had first hand access to Presidents from Eisenhower on. I had known that Israeli manipulation of the U.S. government was bad. I didn't know it was this bad. However, after reading Avnery's book (above) I came to the conclusion that the US has done its share of manipulating Israel, as well.

Dan, Uri. To the Promised Land: the Birth of Israel. New York: Doubleday
, 1988
. This coffee table book is a quintessential example of the sort of Zionist history that Flapan, Morris and Segev have sought to correct in their books. In 1982 Dan became Ariel Sharon's media advisor and accompanied him to Lebanon. Nuff said.

David, Ron. Arabs and Israel for Beginners. New York: Writers and Readers Publishing, 1993, 1996.
This book might be precisely the antidote to the source cited immediately below. Unfortunately, David cites certain Ancient Near Eastern happenings as facts instead of hypotheses, which could give what follows less credibility in the eyes of some. However, the book reads quickly and is helped by the pencil sketches on every page.

Davis, Leonard J. and Decter, Moshe, eds.Myths and Facts 1982: A Concise Record of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Washington, DC: Near East Report, 1982.
The sad thing about this book is that one could refute most of its egregious twistings of truth using entirely Israeli sources. To do so, however would require referring to a dozen scholarly works, none of whichÑwith the possible exception of Segev's works, are nearly as easy to read. The item that really made me mad was the reference to Saad Haddad as a "Lebanese patriot." The editors demonstrated his worthiness by citing his training at Fort Benning! The book does has some useful documents in its appendix (texts of U.N. Security Council resolutions, etc.)

Davis, Uri. Israel: An Apartheid State. London: Zed Books, 1987.

Highly recommended*________ and Mezvinsky, Norton, eds. Documents from Israel: 1967-1973. London: Ithaca Press, 1975.
Contains various articles and essays from largely Hebrew language sources. I found the pieces from The Black Panther especially helpful in learning about the attitudes of the Mizrahi Jews toward the establishment. Invaluable compendium of primary sources.

Dinnerstein, Leonard. America and the Survivors of the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press, 1982.

Doughty, Dick and Mohaammed El Aydi. Gaza: Legacy of Occupation--A Photographer's Journey. Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1995.

Ellis, Marc. Beyond Innocence and Redemption: Confronting the Holocaust. San Francisco: Harper and Row, 1990.
Ellis writes at the end, "The task before us is to confront that which threatens the foundations of Jewishness, drawing strength from the tradition of dissent and raising up the liturgy of destruction to include both those who persecuted us and those whom Jews persecute today. This is the avenue to critical thought and activity that moves beyond innocence and redemption to recover the ethical tradition at the heart of Judaism."

________. Ending Auschwitz: The Future of Jewish and Christian Life. Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994.
Two statements Ellis drills into his classes at Maryknoll are, "Oppose all orthodoxy" and "Beware the guardians of tradition." These statements are an underlying theme of this book in which Ellis balances Auschwitz with the genocide in the Americas begun in 1492. He essentially calls for an end to all theologyÑChristian and JewishÑthat excludes others. Frequently throughout the book he cites Irving Greenburg's dictum that any theology today must be credible in the presence of burning children.

________. Toward a Jewish Theology of Liberation: The Uprising and the Future. E
llis seeks to convince Jewish readers that their theology needs to have a deeper base than the history of persecution and the Holocaust. I have heard criticism from Rabbi Jeremy Milgrom, who agrees with Ellis's premises, that Ellis does not back up his arguments with the Talmud. He is therefore not given a fair hearing among many Jewish scholars. Milgrom believes the Talmud can be used to back up Ellis's premises.

________. Unholy Alliance: Religion and Atrocity in Our Time. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1997.
The title is self-explanatory.
It is helpful to view the atrocities committed by the state of Israel in the context of other atrocities that occurred partly through the collaboration of people who used religion to justify their actions.

Highly recommendedElon, Amos. A Blood-Dimmed Tide: Dispatches from the Middle East. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
It is fascinating to see how Elon's thinking evolved between 1967 and 1995Ñthe period of history that these articles and essays cover. In 1967, he found the triumphalism after the Six Day War vaguely disturbing. By 1995, he knows exactly why he found it disturbing. Straight-forward and informative.

Emerson, Gloria. Gaza: A Year in the Intifada: A Personal Account from an Occupied Land. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 1991.

Englander, Nathan. For the Relief of Unbearable Urges. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.
Most of these stories take place in the ultra-Orthodox milieu that Englander grew up in. The last story, about what sounds like the bombing of Ben Yehudah Mall, gives the reader an idea about the different way that Israelis and expatriates cope with the threat of terrorism.

Ennes, James M. Jr. Assault on Liberty: The True Story of the Israeli Attack on an American Intelligence Ship. New York: Random House, 1979.

Epstein, Melech. Profiles of Eleven. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1965.

Highly recommendedEzrahi, Yaron. Rubber Bullets: Power and Conscience in Modern Israel. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1997.
The major theme of Ezrahi's book is that there has been such a "poverty of the individual" throughout Israel's history, that Israelis do not have the resources to develop an individual's conscience and resistance to collective injustice. As of this writing (12/2/97) the book is very current. It discusses Netanyahu's defeat of Peres in May 1996. As is usual, I found Ezrahi's personal stories--what it was like to grow up in Israel at the time it achieved statehood, what it was like to send his son to the army--the most interesting part of the book.

Feingold, Henry L. The Politics of Rescue. New Jersey: Rutgers University, 1970.
Exposes the miserable response of Roosevelt and the State Department to Jewish refugees fleeing genocide and gives a good picture of what was going on in Europe at the time. Shonfeld's and Weissmandel's accusations re: the American Jewish community are not dealt with. The Palestinian Jewish community's response to the Holocaust is also not much developed. Tom Segev gives a more complete picture of the Jewish response in The Seventh Million.

Fernea, Elizabeth Warnock and Mary Evelyn Hocking. Israelis & Palestinians: The Struggle for Peace. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1992.

Highly recommendedFeuerlicht, Roberta Strauss. The Fate of the Jews: A People torn Between Israeli Power and Jewish Ethics. New York: Times Books, 1983.
Feuerlicht grew up in an Orthodox Jewish family on the Lower East side of New York. I found her description of her family's history fascinating, as well as her tracing the history of Jewish "liberalism." As an insider, she may be a little harder on her community, since she is more aware of its faults. It is usually good to puncture romantic notions people have of various ethnic groups, however.

Findley, Paul. Deliberate Deceptions: Facing the Facts about the US-Israeli Relationship. New York: Lawrence Hill Books, 1993.
For people without the patience to read Flapan and Morris, this is easily digested. Like Curtiss, Findley lets the US off the hook a little too easily, and as a pacifist, I am of course concerned that he sees arming Arab countries as a trend toward egalitarianism. I think Findley dismisses the biblical aspirations of some Israelis too easily.

Highly recommendedFinkelstein, Norman G. Image and eality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict. New York: Verso, 1995.
Finkelstein's analysis of Joan Peter's From TIme Immemorial appears in Said's and Hitchen's Blaming the victims. That essay and others of the same nature make this volume a useful reference for analyzing how media and scholarship related to the Israeli-Palestinian question are slanted. I was especially interested in his analysis of Benni Morris's historical works.

________ and Ruth Bettina Birn. A Nation on Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth. New York: Metropoloitan Books, Henry Holt and Company, 1998.
Finkelstein picks apart Goldhagen's central thesis, i.e., that the Germans were preternaturally disposed toward "eliminationist anti-semitism" in much the same way he picked apart Peters' central thesis in From Time Immemorial. He speculates that Goldhagens' book received the acclamation it did for many of the same reasons that FTI did. Birn's essay demonstrates how Goldhagen manipulated the data from German archives to support his thesis. (12/99)

Highly recommended________. The Rise and Fall of Palestine: A Personal Account of the Intifada Years. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996.
Finkelstein packs a lot into this 121 page book. In addition to recounting the year he spent living and teaching in the Beit Sahour area, he does some comparative analyses that are stunning. He compares Iraq's invasion of Kuwait with Israel's invasion of Lebanon, the attitudes of Palestinians toward Israelis with the attitudes of his parents, who were Holocaust survivors, toward the Germans and the mechanisms that Israel has used to force the Palestinians off the land with the mechanisms that the U.S. used to force the Cherokees off the land. As is usual with Finkelstein, everything is meticulously documented. Highly recommended.

Finkelstein, Norman H. Friends Indeed: The Special Relationship of Israel and the United States. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1998.
Got this out by mistake, thinking it was another book by Norman G. (See above.) Written for young adults, this book provides an easy summation of the conventional wisdom about Israel. In another decade or so, when the conventional wisdom becomes that of historians such as Morris, Flapan and Segev, Norman H. Finkelstein's book will serve as an excellent, articulate example of what people in the U.S. used to believe about Israel. (9/99)

Highly recommendedFlapan, Simha. The Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities. New York: Pantheon Books, 1987.
Flapan, an Israeli historian, examines seven of the myths surrounding the 1947-48 war (e.g., that the Arab countries broadcasted radio announcements encouraging Palestinians to leave their homes.) Using primary sources, he demonstrates that these popularly held beliefs are not always true.

Highly recommended________. Zionism and the Palestinians. New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1979.
Covers the same period that Cohen's Israel and the Arab World does, but Flapan had access to more primary sources of Ben Gurion, Weizmann, et al. than did Cohen.

Fonseca, Isabel. Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and Their Journey. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995.
I read this and Crowe's and Friedlander's books to try to gain an understanding of how the Holocaust had affected other groups targeted for destruction by the Nazis. Fonseca writes beautifully and manages to present a view of Gyspy life and history that his both unsentimental and compassionate. Interesting tidbit toward the end about how it wasn't until Elie Wiesel resigned in 1986 that the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council was able to include a Gypsy on its council. Wiesel opposed Gypsy representation.

Freedman, Robert O.. ed. Israel Under Rabin. Boulder: Westview Press, 1995.

Friedland, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel HIll, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995. F
riedland seeks to expand the definition of Nazi genocide to include other "biologically selected" targets, especially the Gypsies and the handicapped. He shows how the murder of handicapped and disabled people eventually set the groundwork for the Final Solution.

Friedman, Robert. The False Prophet: From FBI Informant to Knesset Member. Brooklyn: Lawrence Hill Books, 1990.
A biography of Meir Kahane and his influence among American Jews and in Israeli politics. (Kahane lived in Kiryat Arba, outside of Hebron, and there is a park dedicated in his honor there.)

________. Zealots for Zion: Inside Israel's West Bank Settlement Movement. New York: Random House, 1992.
Friedman examines the right wing Israelis of American background who started and perpetuate the settlement movement in Israel. Gives backgrounds on several of the Hebron settlers with whom CPT has come in contact.

Highly recommendedFriedman, Thomas. From Beirut to Jerusalem. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
The most readable book I have found on the Middle East conflict. Friedman was the New York Times correspondent in Lebanon during the war in the early Ô80's and was in the correspondent in Jerusalem during the time of the Intifada. His first person account of what he saw and his historical analysis, while not radical, do run counter to many of the prevailing myths Americans believe about Israel and Lebanon. After reading this book, people should read Edward Said's critical review of it in The Politics of Dispossession.

Gaffney, Mark. Dimona: The Third Temple? The Story Behind the Vanunu Revelation. Brattleboro, VT: Amana Books, 1989.

Ganeri, Anita. I Remember Palestine: Why We Left. Austin, TX: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1995.
The first 12 pages of this 27 page books seem to be devoted to justifying Israel's conquest of the region and it ends with a paean to Oslo. This is supposed to be part of a series (I Remember Bosnia, I Remember Somalia.) It would be interesting to see the political slant on those.

Gerner, Deborah J. One Land, Two Peoples: The Conflict over Palestine. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991.

Ghareeb, Edmund, ed. Split Vision: The Portrayal of Arabs in the American Media. Washington, DC: Arab-American Affairs Council, 1983.
More thorough than Shaheen's book. The numerous interviews with journalists regarding how Arabs are portrayed sheds an interesting light on some familiar faces and names.

Giacaman, George and Dag Jorund Lonning. After Oslo: New Realities, Old Problems. London and Chicago: Pluto Press, 1998.

Highly recommendedGluck, Sherna Berger. An American Feminist in Palestine: The Intifada Years. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994.
Gluck, an American Jewish professor, stands strongly in solidarity with Palestinian women. Her introduction and conclusion deal with some of the emotional struggles she has had as a result of her background. In the end she concludes that she has come to the place she is regarding Palestinian rights because of her Jewish heritage rather than in spite of it. The intro and conclusion alone are worth the price of the book.

Goldberg, J.J. Jewish Power: Inside the American Jewish Establishment. New York, et al: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. 1996.
Goldberg quotes former National Security Council staffer William Quandt as saying, "When people just accept your assumptions, you're halfway there in policy debate." Goldberg's assumptions are that nearly all Arab complaints regarding Israel are illegitimate and that all non-Jews who criticize Israel are anti-semitic. He pooh poohs works by Chomsky, Findley, Stephen Green, Tivnan and George and Douglas Ball for "attempting to document the Israel lobby's stranglehold over American foreign policy." Those criticisms aside, I found Goldberg's explanations as to why American Jewish leadership's politics are often at odd with those of the Jewish rank and file helpful. (11/99)

Goldmann, Nahum. The Autobiography of Nahum Goldmann: Sixty Years of Jewish Life. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969.

Gordon, Haim. Quicksand: Israel, the Intifada and the Rise of Political Evil in Democracies. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1995.

Highly recommendedGordon, Neve and Ruchama Marton. Torture: Human Rights, Medical Ethics and the Case of Israel. London: Zed Books, 1995.

Highly recommendedGraff, James A. Palestinian Children and Israeli State Violence. Toronto: NECEF, 1991.

Highly recommendedGreen, Stephen. Living by the Sword: America and Israel in the Middle East 1968-87. Brattleboro, VT: Amana Books, 1988.
The Cockburns cite Green's books as a valuable resource. Largely using unclassified U.S. documents, Green uncovers some of the more unsavory aspects of Israel's ventures and the United States' collaboration with these ventures. Having read a lot of Israeli history by now (3/97), I did not expect to read anything new. I was wrong. Interesting that the first book was put out by a major publisher and the second one wasn't.

Highly recommended________. Taking Sides: America's Secret Relations with a Militant Israel. New York: William Morrow and Company, 1984.
Especially interesting in this book to note that the unclassified documents from the time of the Ô47-'48 war had never been accessed before Green did so. A demonstration of myths taking precedence over facts.

Grose, Peter. Israel in the Mind of America. New York: Knopf, 1983.

Grossman, David. The Book of Intimate Grammar. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1994.
Gives a fictional account of growing up in Israel to immigrant parents in the fifties.

________. Sleeping on a Wire: Conversations with Palestinians in Israel. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1993.
Grossman speaks Arabic fluently and has long been a critic of the Israeli occupation. This book exposes much of the racism in Israeli society. He makes some interesting comparisons in this book between West Bank Palestinians and Palestinian Israelis.

________. Smile of the Lamb. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1990.
Supposedly the first fictional novel about the corrupting influence of the Israeli occupation of the West Bank on Israeli society. Certainly the Arabs and the Moroccan Jewish protagonist come across as more moral than the Ashkenazi characters.

________. See UnderÑLove. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989.
Like Grossman's other fiction, this novel is somewhat mystical and hard to understand. However the Wasserman section is worth all the rest of the book. Grossman manages to convey both the full horror of the Nazi death camps and humanize the officer running one of these camps (which makes the horror greater, of course.) The other sections seem to show that the Holocaust has rendered all of Israeli society dysfunctional.

Highly recommended________. The Yellow Wind. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1989.
This edition has a prologue which Grossman wrote talking about how his perceptions, and Israeli perceptions have changed since the outbreak of the Intifada (the original book was published before the Intifada.) His treatment of Palestinians in the West Bank is largely sympathetic. And his treatment of settlers in the West Bank is largely unsympathetic.

Guyatt, Nicholes. The Absence of Peace: Understanding the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. London and New York: Zed Books, 2001

Habiby, Emile. The Secret Life of Saeed the Pessoptimist. London: Zed Books (1974?) Distributed 1985.
A fictional account, based on Voltaire's Candide, of the adventures of a Palestinian collaborator in Israel after the 1947-48 war. Habiby, who died this year, was a Palestinian Israeli and provides a glimpse of Israel's wars from a Palestinian perspective.

Highly recommendedHadawi, Sami. Bitter Harvest: A Modern History of Palestine. New York: Olive Branch, 1989.

Halevi, Yossi Klein. Memoirs of a Jewish Extremist: An American Story.Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1995.
A revealing portrait of life inside the Jewish Defense League and into the all-Jewish environment in which Halevi grew up. It is disappointing in the end to see Halevy fail to empathize with the fate of the Palestinians, because we have seen him grow so much throughout the course of the rest of the book.

Haddad, Hassan and Donald Wagner, eds. All in the Name of the Bible: Selected Essays on Israel and American Christian Fundamentalism. Brattleboro, VT: Amana, 1986.

Halsell, Grace. Journey to Jerusalem. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1981.
If it were not so dated, this book would appear on my "highly recommended" list. Sadly, while the political situation has changed since 1981, the attitudes that Halsell describes have not.

*________. Prophecy and Politics: Militant Evangelists on the Road to Nuclear War. Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill & Co., 1986.
Halsell explores the origins and philosophy of the Christian Zionist movement and recounts her experiences on tours conducted by Jerry Falwell and other prominent Christian Zionists. She makes a good case for Christians taking the threat these Zionists pose for Middle East peace seriously.

Harkabi, Yehoshafat. Israel's Fateful Hour. trans. Lenn Schramm, New York: Harper and Row, 1988.

Highly recommendedHass, Amira. Drinking the Sea at Gaza. New York: Metropolitan Books, 1999.
Hass, a journalist for Ha ÔAretz newspaper, lived in Gaza and gives a first person account of the strains that Gazans have had to deal with--first under the Israelis and now under the PNA. Although her focus is on Gaza, the book effectively shows the contours of the pressure cooker into which all Palestinians have been forced as a result of the Israeli occupation. (Spring 2000)

Hecht, Ben. Perfidy. New York: Julian Messner, Inc., 1961.
An invaluable look at the controversial Kastner trial in Isral in the mid-1950's and at the callousness that the rulers of Israel showed to the millions of Jews dying in Europe--some of whom they had the opportunity of saving. Hecht cannot be dismissed as a knee-jerk anti-Zionist, because his sympathies lay with the Irgun and Jabotinsky. Moreover, he quotes liberally from actual transcripts of the trial.

Heiberg, Marianne and Geir ¯venson. Palestinian Society in Gaza, West Bank and Jerusalem: A Survey of Living Conditions. FAFO-report, 152.

Highly recommendedHeikal, Mohammad. Secret Channels: The Inside Story of Arab-Israeli Peace Negotiations. London: Harper Collins, 1996.

Heller, Mark A. and Sai Nusseibeh. No Trumpets No Drums: A Two-State Settlement of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict. New York: Hill & Wang, 1991.

Herman, Edward S. The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. Boston: South End Press, 1982.
While Herman deals more extensively with state terrorism in Latin America than he does with Israeli terrorism, the book is useful for students of the Israeli Palestinian conflict in that it gives a different paradigm from which to view terrorism. The section on the media is especially helpful for people seeking to understand why a government bombing civilians is not terrorism while one person hijacking a plane, car, etc. is.

Hersh, Seymour. The Price of Power: Kissinger in the Nixon White House. New York: Summit Books, 1983.
Chapters 18,19, and 29 deal with Kissinger and Nixon's Middle East policy. Hersh argues persuasively that the 1973 Israeli-Egyptian war could have been prevented entirely, but Kissinger's personal vendetta against Secretary of State William P. Rogers who tried to mediate between the two countries and Kissinger's megalomaniacal insistence that all major foreign policy decisions be attributed to himself alone, scuttled negotiations.

________. The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy. New York: Random House, 1991.

Hertzberg, Arthur. Being Jewish in America: The Modern Experience. New York: Schocken Books, 1979.

Herzl, Theodor. Old-New Land. New York: Bloch Publishing Company, 1960.
Herzl's fictional vision of what the hypothetical Jewish state would become is not without its charms. Although an ethic of European colonialism pervades the vision (one of the chief protagonists still has black servants), Herzl made point of demonsrating how Arab inhabitants of Palestine would have the same rights as the Jewish pioneers and how they would be perfectly free to maintain their cultural identity. The translator litters the manuscript with footnotes pointing out how much of the Zionist vision had come true without addressing how (and why) this fundamental part of the vision did not.

Heschel, Abraham Joshua. A Passion for Truth. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1973.
I checked this out because I wanted to balance all the deception inherent in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict with the place truth holds in Judaism. It wasn't quite what I expected. Heschel compares and contrasts the Hasidic rebbe, "the Kotzker" with the Baal Shem Tov and with Kierkegaard and casts the debate in terms of love vs. truth. Still, like Klagsbrun, Heschel does elevate what is true and good and noble about Judaism, which is important for anyone involved in the dialectic of the Israeli Palestinian conflict.

Hillel, Daniel. Rivers of Eden: The Struggle for Water and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Hiltermann, Joost R. Behind the Intifada. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Hirst, David. The Gun and the Olive Branch: The Roots of Violence in the Middle East. New York: Harcourt Brace and Jovanovich, 1977.
Hirst takes an unflinching look at the violence promulgated by both Israelis and Palestinians and tackles the popular myths most people believe about Israel's wars. I would recommend this over Curtiss's book in that regard (Curtiss quotes heavily from Hirst's book in fact), but it ends in 1977, before the war in Lebanon.

Hunter, Jane. Israeli Foreign Policy: South Africa and Central America. Boston: South End Press, 1987.

Hurley, Andrew J. Israel and the New World Order. Santa Barbara: Fifthian Press, 1991.

*Hurwitz, Deena, ed. Walking the Red Line: Israelis in Search of Justice for Palestine. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1992.
A collection of essays by the Israeli left presenting views that are never heard in American popular media.Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip: Washington, DC, September 28, 1995. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem.
Essentially the Oslo Accords (or Oslo II). Great maps in a pocket in the back.

Jabbour, Hala Deeb. A Woman of Nazareth.. (Fiction.) New York: Olive Branch Press, 1989.

Jayyusi, Salma Khadra, ed. Anthology of Modern Palestinian Literature. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992.

Kanafani, Ghassem. All That's Left To You. (Fiction.) Austin: University of TExas Press, 1990.

Highly recommendedKarpin, Michael and Friedman, Ina. Murder in the Name of God: the Plot to Kill Yitzhak Rabin. New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1998.
A really gripping account of how the Israeli right-wing cult laid the groundwork for Yigal Amir's murder of Yitzhak Rabin. Many of the players described in the book are people well-known to CPT's Hebron team, and the atmosphere of the summer of 1995 accords well with what the Hebron team saw in the first few months of CPT's project there.

Kellerman, Jonathan. The Butcher's Theater. Toronto; New York: Bantam Books, 1989.
A murder mystery set in Jerusalem, and one of the most appallingly racist works of fiction I've ever read. With the exception of the Palestinian detective from Bethlehem, all of the Arab characters are grotesque in some way, e.g., extremely obese, cruel or afflicted with a rare condition called "micro-penis." Kellerman also makes some statements that are patently false, e.g., that female circumcision is commonly done among Palestinians and that Yassar Arafat at one point countenanced gang rape as part of the PLO's armed struggle. The sad thing is that it is a gripping mystery, but if Kellerman had written about African Americans the way he writes about Arabs, this would have been in the same league as the Turner Diaries.

Khalidi, Rashid. Palestinian Identity: the Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
Khalidi goes back to newspapers and other primary sources from the Ottoman and British Mandate period to examine when Palestinians began thinking of themselves as "Palestinians rather than Arabs. The last chapter deals with how the question of identity has been manipulated by Israeli propagandists.
Very readable for an academic work.

Khalidi, Walid. All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington, DC: The Institute for Palestine Studies, 1992.
The title is self-explanatory. This massive book contains lots of photographs and maps which help the reader visualize the enormity of the dest ruction. . Palestine Reborn. London: I.B. Taurus, 1992.

Khalifeh, Sahar. Wild Thorns. (Fiction.) New York: Olive Branch Press, 1989.

Khouri, Fred J. The Arab Israeli Dilemma, 3rd ed. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1993.

Kimche, Jon. The Last Option: After Nasser, Arafat and Saddam Hussein: The Quest for Peace in the Middle East. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1991.

________. There Could Have Been Peace. New York: Dial Press, 1973.

Kimmerling, Baruch. Politicide: Ariel Sharon's War Against the Palestinians. London and New York: Verso, 2003.

Klagsbrun, Francine. Voices of Wisdom: Jewish Ideals and Ethics for Everyday Living. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980.
While not precisely a "Middle East" reference, this book helps to balance out Israel Shahak's book mentioned below, by showing that there is indeed a humane, universalistic tradition that runs through the Talmud in addition to a xenophobic one.

Klieman, Aaron S.Israel's Global Reach: Arms Sales as Diplomacy. McLean, VA: Pergamon-Brassey's International Defense Publishers, 1985.

Koestler, Arthur. The Thirteenth Tribe. New York: Random House, 1976.
I checked this out because Ghareeb in his book cited it as "proof" that Ashkenazi Jews have no inherent right to Palestine. Koestler makes a good case linguistically, demographically, and historically that the bulk of the Jews of Eastern Europe were descended from the KhazarsÑa people in the Caucasus region that converted to Judaism in the 7th-8th centuries. Most of the modern Israelis are sephardic of course and I don't think this revelation would change anything in contemporary Israeli policy (If I converted to Judaism, I would have the right to become an Israeli citizen, myself.)
Still, I found the book intriguing as a convincing argument against typcasting anyone as a single "race.".

Klagsbrun, Francine. Voices of Wisdom: Jewish Ideals and Ethics for Everyday Living. New York: Pantheon Books, 1980.
While not precisely a "Middle East" reference, this book helps to balance out Israel Shahak's book mentioned below, by showing that there is indeed a humane, universalistic tradition that runs through the Talmud in addition to a xenophobic one.

Klieman, Aaron S.Israel's Global Reach: Arms Sales as Diplomacy. McLean, VA: Pergamon-Brassey's International Defense Publishers, 1985.

Koestler, Arthur. The Thirteenth Tribe. New York: Random House, 1976.
I checked this out because Ghareeb in his book cited it as "proof" that Ashkenazi Jews have no inherent right to Palestine. Koestler makes a good case linguistically, demographically, and historically that the bulk of the Jews of Eastern Europe were descended from the KhazarsÑa people in the Caucasus region that converted to Judaism in the 7th-8th centuries. Most of the modern Israelis are Sephardic of course and I don't think this revelation would change anything in contemporary Israeli policy (If I converted to Judaism, I would have the right to become an Israeli citizen, myself.)
Still, I found the book intriguing as a convincing argument against typcasting anyone as a single "race."

Kolsky, Thomas A. Jews Against Zionism: The American Council for Judaism, 1942-48. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1990.

Highly recommended*Langer, Felicia. With My Own Eyes. London: Ithaca Press, 1975.
Langer writes a series of vignettes of human rights cases she took on as an Israeli lawyer in 1968-1973. The writing is not elegant, but the simple recording of what she saw and heard in Israel and the Occupied Territories has a powerful impact.

Highly recommendedLangfur, Stephen. Confessions from a Jericho Jail: What happened when I refused to fight the Palestinians. New York: Grove Weidenfield, 1992.
A fascinating account of Langfur's experience as a conscientious objector in the Jericho jail. Trained as a philosopher and steeped in the biblical dimensions of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Lanfur used his time in jail to do a lot of thinking and a lot of growing. The ending, in particular, in which he recounts and experience sharing in a Sabbath service with Jews from many different walks of life as Palestinians in their cell called for water is particularly haunting.

Le Carre, John. The Little Drummer Girl. New York: Bantam Books, 1983.
I read this book because Benny Morris says it more or less accurately depicts how Israeli intelligence operates in Europe. Sobering thought. I wish Le Carre had been able to make the Palestinian characters as complex and humane as the Israeli characters. Mostly they are noble sufferers or terrorists. In a small way, Le Carre has bought into the "shoot and cry" stereotype of the Israeli soldier.

Lee, Eric. Saigon to Jerusalem: Conversations with U.S. Veterans of the Vietnam War who emigrated to Israel. Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1992.
The title is self-explanatory. It is interesting to see which Vietnam vets went on to become hawks and which ones went on to become doves in Israel. David Ramati, one of the veterans interviewed in the book is a settler from Kiryat Arba with whom the Hebron team is familiar. (11/99)

Leibowitz, Yeshayahu. Judaism, Human Values, and the Jewish State. ed. Eliezer Goldman. Cambridge, MA:. Harvard University Press, 1992.
While not all of his essays will be engrossing to those not interested in rabbinic literature, most contain very sane reflections on what he saw Judaism becoming as a result of Israeli policy. Gives very clearcut commentary on the difference between Judaism and Zionism.

Lerner, Michael. Jewish Renewal: a Path to Healing and Transformation.New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1994.
Lerner's chapters on the place Israel has held in North American Jewish ideology and faith and his analysis of Jewish Holy War passages in the Bible provide useful analysis for people trying to understand the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in these contexts.

Levins, Hoag. Arab Reach: The Secret War Against Israel. Garden City, NY: Doubleday and Company, Inc, 1983.
I was prepared to really hate this book at the beginning, when Levin described the architecture of the Tunisian embassy in sinister termsÑalong with all contacts between Arab lobbies and congress. Some of his descriptions are blatantly racist: "Faisal Ibn Abdul-Aziz al Saud, his faceÉresembling nothing so much as the face of one of the killer falcons he bred, proclaimed that the decision had been made to "unsheathe the sword of oil." Levin also unfortunately uses the words "Palestinian" and "Muslim" interchangeably. On the other hand he does not cover up or defend Israeli actions that provoked the ire of Arab countries, and the book is really more a study of Arab economic interests in the US and Europe. I'm still not sure, however, why he thinks the Arab countries using their economic clout on behalf of the Palestinians is a morally dubious action.

Lilienthal, Alfred M.The Zionist Connection: What Price Peace? New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1978.
The most useful part of this 778 page densely footnoted book are the sections in which Lilienthal demonstrates how the media, especially the New York Times, exhibits bias for Israel and the effect Zionism has had on Judaism in the United States and on policymakers. In a few sections, Lilienthal seems to let polemics get the better of him, as when he suggests that Anne Frank's diary was a fake, saying that no teenage girl could have written that. (As a former teenage girl, I disagree.)

Lindsay, Hal. The Late Great Planet Earth. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1970.
I read this mainly because I wanted to understand a little better where the Christian Zionists are coming from.

Lindsay, Hal, Planet Earth Ñ 2000 A.D. : Will Mankind Survive? Palos Verdes, Calif. : Western Front, 1994.
See above. Lindsay lost me when he said the lack of anti-nuclear rallies in the U.S. since the Soviet Union broke up was a clear indication that it had been behind them all along. Says some really atrocious and perhaps libelous things about Islam and Yassar Arafat.

Louvish, Simon. The Silencer. (Fiction.) London: BLoomsbury, 1991.

*Lustick, Ian, ed. Arab-Israeli Relations in World Politics. New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1994.
A collection of academic articles, apparently photocopied directly from other journals (the typefaces are all different.) Lustick's article, "Israeli Politics and American Foreign Policy," is worth readingÑif only to think regretfully of some common sense steps the U.S. could have taken during the settlement expansion under Begin (when the article was written.) Taken together, however, the essays really seem insignificant compared to the writings of Israelis and Palestinians recounting personal experiences.

*________. For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel. New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1988.
Less easy to read than Friedman's Zealots for Zion or even Sprinzak's The Ascendance of Israel's Radical Right. However, the book quotes extensively from settler publications in Hebrew, which makes it a useful resource, and it examines in more detail the affect that Gush Emunim had on Israeli society as a whole than either of the other two books.

Highly recommendedLynd, Staughton, Sam Bahour & Alice Lynd. eds. Homeland: Oral Histories of Palestine and Palestinians. New York: Olive Branch Press, 1994.

Mallison, W. Thomas and Sally V. The Palestine Problem in International Law and World Order. Essex, England: Longman Group Ltd., 1986.

McDowall, David. Palestine and Israel: The Uprising and Beyond. Berkeley: University ofCalifornia Press, 1989.

Makovsky, David. Making Peace with the PLO: The Rabin Government's Road to the Oslo Accord. Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 1996.

Mansour, Camille. Beyond Alliance: Israel and U.S. Foreign Policy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Masalha, Nur. Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "transfer in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestinian Studies, 1992.

Massalha, Omar. Towards the Long-Promised Peace. London: Saqi Books, 1994.

Mattar, Philip. The Mufti of Jerusalem: Al-Hajj Amin Al Husayni and the Palestinian National Movement. London: Saqi Books, 1994.

Highly recommendedMendelsohn, Everett. A Compassionate Peace: A Future for Israel, Palestine and the Middle East. Revised ed. (A Report Prepared for the American Friends Service Committee.) New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1989.

Morris, Benny. 1948 and After: Israel and the Palestinians. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994.

________. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-49. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Slow, difficult readingÑmostly because Morris methodically covers how each city, town and village in Palestine was emptied during the 1948-49. It is an important and valuable work, because Morris works almost entirely from primary sources and manages to demonstrate that the flight of the Palestinian refugees was a complex process, and differed in circumstance from region to region. The book is written from an Israeli perspective (One is still left with the feeling that Morris viewed all the unpleasantness as a sad necessity), but he does not cover up the atrocities that occurred as a result of the war, and he successfully demonstrates the effect that Israeli war propaganda had in hardening the hearts of the Israeli public. For people looking for an easier read, I recommend Segev.

________. Israel's Border Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993.

________ and Black, Ian. Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Service. New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991.
It would be good to read this in conjunction with Curtiss's book, because the attitude toward Israel's wars is written from an entirely different perspective. I realized after a while that what bothered me about Morris's book was that it did not really touch on the motivations behind the Arab countries' attacks on Israel. It seems that Morris depends as much on interviews as he does on documents, which of course, accounts for part of this perspective. Appreciated his comment at the end that in a perfect world, intelligence would be used for making peace with enemies instead of making war.

Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.
I read Avi Shlaim's Iron Wall, shortly after finishing this comprehensive history and Morris seems so ponderous by comparison. I had to renew his book six times to finish it. Morris is upfront about telling readers that he writes from an Israeli perspective because he has more access to Israeli sources. An interesting review of the book in the March 13 issue of the Jerusalem Report says this is no excuse. Morris could have sought the help of Arabic speakers to read Arab sources. I was a little taken aback by his casual references to the Israeli attacks on the U.S.S. Liberty in 1967 and on the U.N. headquarters at Kafr Kana in 1995 as regrettable accidents, without mentioning that there is considerable international controversy over whether these attacks were accidental. Still, the book covers a large swathe of history and helps the reader to put the Israeli-Palestinian within a largely demythologized framework.

Muhawi, Ibrhaim Sharif Kanaana. Speak Bird, Speak Again: Palestinian Arab Folktales. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994.

Murphy, Jay, ed. For Palestine. New York and London: Writers and Readers, 1994.

Highly recommendedNeff, Donald. Fallen Pillars: U.S. Policy Towards Palestine and Israel since `945. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1995.

________. Warriors for Jerusalem: The Six Days That Changed the Middle East. New York: Linden Press/Simon & Schuster, 1984.

Highly recommended Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life. Boston/New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1999.
Novick believes that the paradox of the Holocaust becoming a focal point in the 70's, 80's and 90's instead of in the 50's and 60's, can be explained by the waning international and American support of Israel. ( Novick notes that most Vietnam movies and books came out within 10 years after the war.) Some interesting tidbits: the article on the Mufti of Jerusalem in the 4 volume Encyclopedia of the Holocaust is twice as long as the articles on Goebbels and Goering and four times as long as the article on Himmler. One rabbi's explanation why the Holocaust has become the focal point of American Jewry: God and Israel are too controversial. (9/99.)

Nye, Naomi Shibab. Sitti's Secrets. New York: Four Winds Press, 1994.
A beautifully illustrated picture book about a young American girl's visit to her grandmother in Palestine. The political message is very subtle, but probably all the more effective because of the subtlety.

Orr, Akiva. Israel: Politics Myths and Identity crises. London: Pluto Press, 1994.

Ostrovsky, Victor and Claire Hoy. By Way of Deception. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990.
I read this book in Haiti, little knowing that some day I would have to deal with the mentality Ostrovsky describes in the book. I imagine the blatant immorality that characterizes the Mossad isn't all that different from that which characterizes the CIA or other espionage outfits.

Highly recommended________. The Other Side of Deception. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.
Reads like a novel and includes a lot of stuff he felt he couldn't include in the first book, e.g., that the Mossad was planning to assassinate Bush at Madrid and blame it on the Palestinians and that Israel has used Palestinians and black South Africans as guinea pigs in medical experiments.

Highly recommendedOz, Amos. In the Land of Israel. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 1983.
Most interesting of these essays are those which contain conversations with IsraelisÑOriental Jews, West Bank settlersÑwho view kibbutzniks like Oz as one of the enemy. An interesting look at the factions into which Israelis are divided.

________. Israel, Palestine and Peace. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1994. A collection of essays.
While Oz does not fully appreciate the hardships under which most Palestinians live, he does a lot better than most Israelis. He concludes his introduction with, "Ultimately these pages were written by an Israeli who fought for his country and who loves it, even during dark times when he was unable to like it. I have never maintained that Ôright or wrongÑI must stand up for my country'; I have often felt that my country will survive and prosper only if it does right."

Highly recommended________. The Slopes of Lebanon. Trans. Maurie Goldberg-Bartura, 1989.
I liked this collection of essays better than the 1994 collection (but a lot happened between the publishing dates of both books, so maybe Oz grew more cynical.) Two of the most insightful essays in the book are "Hebrew Melodies," (in which Oz describes how Lebanon might be conquered in the same way the West Bank was) and "The Heart of Fear."

Highly recommendedPalumbo, Michael. The Palestinian Catastrophe: The 1948 Expulsion of a People from Their Homeland. London: Quartet Books, 1987.

Highly recommendedPappŽ, Ilan. The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-1951. London: I.B. Tauris, 1994.

Parker, Richard B. The Politics of MIscalculation in the Middle East. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993.

Peck, Juliana S. The Reagan Administration and the Palestinian Question. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestinian Studies, 1984.

Peretz, Don. Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.

Perlmutter, Nathan and Ruth Ann. The Real Anti-Semitism in America. New York: Arbor House, 1982.
After noting that surveys show that liberal Protestants have fewer anti-semitic attitudes but are more critical of Israel and that Fundamentalist Protestants have more anti-semitic attitudes but support Israel, the Perlmutters do NOT conclude that anti-semitism and criticism of Israel are not the same thing. Rather, they conclude that liberal Protestants are secretly more anti-semitic and fundamentalists are secretly less anti-semitic.

Peters, Joan. From Time Immemorial: The Origins of the Arab-Jewish Conflict over Palestine. New York: Harper and Row, 1984.
I have actually not read this as of 8/9/99, but have read lots about it. It is notorious as an example of pro-Israeli propaganda. People to whom I have submitted this bibliography for input have shuddered upon seeing this work cited. The best source for discussion of this book may be found in Finkelstein's Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict (See above.)

Prior, Michael. The Bible and Colonialism: A Moral Critique. England: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997.

Quandt, William B. Peace Process: American Diplomacy amd the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute, 1993.

________, Fudad Jaber and Ann Mosely. The Politics of Palestinian Nationalism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.

Ragen, Naomi. Jephte's Daughter. New York: Warner Books, 1989.
I read the Ragen books on the recommendation of a Canadian-Israeli peace activist. Each of them sensitively addresses the dilemmas that Orthodox Jewish women face when their faith collides with the modern world. As novels, they are excellent. When one reads them from a political perspective, one sees how it is possible for many Israelis and American Jews to be good people and at the same time totally ignorant of and unsympathetic to the struggles of Palestinian families.

________. The Sacrifice of Tamar. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

________. Sotah. New York: HarperCollins, 1992.

Raheb, MItri. I Am a Palestinian Christian. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1995.

Raviv, Dan and Melman, Yossi. Every Spy a Prince: The COmplete History of Israel's Intelligence Community. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1990.

________. Friends Indeed: Inside the U.S.-Israel Alliance. New York: Hyperion, 1994.

Reuther, Rosemary Radford and Ellis, Marc. eds. Beyond Occupation: American Jewish, Christian and Palestinian Voices for Peace.
Good selection of essays from people of a variety of religious backgrounds more interested in human rights and ethics than in nationalism.

Highly recommendedReuther, Rosemary Radford and Herman J. The Wrath of Jonah: Crisis of Religious Nationalism in the Israeli Palestinian Conflict. New York: Harper and Row, 1989.
Good background reading for people who don't know a lot about the roots of the conflictÑbiblical and historical. Christians who wish to atone for the anti-semitic history of the church, but who also abhor Israeli policy toward the Palestinians will find the Reuthers to be helpful allies.

Rice, Michael. False Inheritance: Israel in Palestine and the Search for a Solution. London and New York: Kegan Paul International, 1994.

Roberts, Samuel J. Party and Policy in Israel: The Battle Between Hawks and Doves. Boulder: Westview Press, 1990.

Highly recommended*Rokach, Livia. Israel's Sacred Terrorism: A Study based on Moshe Sharett's Personal Diary and Other Documents. Belmont, MA: Association of Arab-American University Graduates, 1986.
In Rokach's introduction to this 49 page monograph, she writes, "...Sharett's Diary is potentially devastating to Zionist propaganda as the Pentagon Papers were in regard to U.S. aggression in Vietnam." I agree. Sadly, it seems to have had little impact on Zionist mythology here in the U.S.

Rosenwasser, Penny. Voices from the Promised Land: Palestinian and Israeli Peace Activists Speak Their Hearts. East Haven, CT: Curbstone Press, 1992.

Roth, Philip. The Counterlife. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1986.
Intriguing from a literary standpoint, this book also sheds some light on the relationship between American and Israeli Jews. The settler movement comes off looking pretty bad (Although Zuckerman, the narrator of these sections, is not the most appealing of characters either.) Because of the book's literary structure, one could read the sections entitled, "Judea," and "Aloft" for the purposes of better understanding Israeli-American Jewish relations and skip the rest of the book.

Highly recommendedRubenberg, Cheryl A. Israel and the American National Interest: A Critical Examination. Urbana; Chicago: The University of Illinois Press, 1986.
Slow reading and heavily footnoted, this book covers a lot of the same territory as other revisionist histories of Israeli. However, she places this history in the context of her thesis, i.e., that America's support for Israel has been detrimental to its interests.
She makes a couple geographic errors, e.g. putting Kafr Qassem in the West Bank.

Highly recommendedRubenstein, Danny. The People of Nowhere: The Palestinian Vision of Home. New York: Times Books, 1991.

Saba, Michael. The Armageddon Network. Vermont: Amana Books, 1984.

Highly recommendedSacco, Joe. Palestine: A Nation Occupied. Seattle, WA: Fantagraphics Books, 1994.
The comic book format brings the harsh reality of the occupationÑespecially the torture of administrative detaineesÑto life in the way that human rights releases cannot. Sacco also is able to capture the absurdities at work in Israel/Palestine better than most writers.

Highly recommendedSaid, Edward. and Christopher Hitchens. ed. Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question. London, NY: Verso, 1988.
Said, a Palestinian American and Hitchens, a journalist, examine and debunk "scholarly" propaganda that has had a large influence on Israeli and American public opinion. They make heavy use of Simha Flapan's book.

________. Covering Islam How the Media and the Experts Determine How We See the Rest of the World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1981.

Said, Edward W. Out of Place: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1999.
People looking for another polemic will be disappointed, because Said's memoir is a deeply personal, intimate overview of his growing up in a dysfunctional family and never feeling like he belonged in Cairo, Jerusalem, the United States, or Lebanon. Given the lucid authority with which he writes on Israel/Palestine issues, however, I found his willingness to write about his insecurities courageous.

Highly recommended________. Peace and Its Discontents: Essays on Palestine in the Middle East Peace Process. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.

Highly recommended________. The Politics of Dispossession: The Struggle for Palestinian Self Determination 1969-1994. New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.
A collection of articulate essays that help to take the Israeli-Palestinian conflict off the Israeli-U.S. playing field and enable the reader to see the conflict from the viewpoint of a Palestinian American. I was especially intrigued by Said's review of Friedmann's Beirut to Jerusalem book which I had liked a lot.

________. The Question of Palestine. New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

Savir, Uri. The Process: 1100 Days that Changed the Middle East. New York: Random House, 1998.
A behind the scenes look at how the Oslo accords (and subsequent agreements) came about. Although Savir makes no apologies about negotiating a deal that was more beneficial for the Israelis than Palestinians, he presents the views of the Palestinian negotiators fairly. (Although he sometimes referred to what seemed to me perfectly reasonable demands by Palestinians as "polemical.") Interestingly, he makes no mention of the negotiations that Ashrawi described in her book, This Side of Peace. Most useful for me was Savir's exasperation with the the right wing's insistence that Arafat has not annulled parts of the PLO covenant calling for Israel's destruction. Savir states unequivocally that these portions were annulled in 1996.

Schiff, Ze'ev and Ya'ari. Intifada. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

________. Israel's Lebanon War. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984.

Schoenman, Ralph. The Hidden History of Zionism. Santa Barbara, CA: Veritas PRess, 1988.

Segal, Haggai. Dear Brothers: The West Bank Jewish Underground. Woodmere, NY: Beit Shamai Publications, Inc.
Segal is unrepentant about his role in planting bombs in the cars of three West Bank Mayors. The book is a veritable orgy of self-adulation. The people involved with the bombings, the shoot out at Hebron University, planting bombs under five Arab buses, and plotting to blow up the Dome of the Rock are depicted as misunderstood heroes. The most telling phrase in the book occurs when Segal refers to the group's indictment: "Anyone reading it would have concluded that it referred to a violent gang bent on satisfying dark, sadistic impulses."

Highly recommendedSegev, Tom. 1949:The First Israelis. New York: Free, Press, 1986.
Working almost entirely from primary sources such as Ben Gurion's diaries and minutes from Knesset meetings, Segev, an Israeli, dispels a great many firmly entrenched myths about the creation of the State of IsraelÑespecially in regard to how the pre-state Zionists regarded the Palestinians. I was intrigued by the way that the Jewish immigrants from North Africa were received. It goes a long way toward explaining the current class system in Israel.

Highly recommended________. The Seventh Million: Israel and the Holocaust. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.
Segev examines the actual reactions of pre-Israeli statehood Zionists to the slaughter of the Jews in Europe. He then examines how the refugees from the Holocaust were treated by Israelis and how the Holocaust has shaped Israeli politics since.

Sevela, Ephraim. Farewell, Israel. South Bend, IN: Gateway Editions, Ltd., 1977.

Shahak, Israel. Jewish History, Jewish Religion. London: Pluto Press, 1994.
Shahak, an Israeli holocaust survivor gives a background of the Talmudic texts cited by the Israeli right wing to further a racist agenda. Also takes another look at the history of Jewish persecution. While I found the book valuable in trying to understand where the Hebron settlers were coming from, I agree with Jewish commentators that Shahak paints with too broad a brush stroke, esp. in his assertion that Jews involved in the U.S. Civil Rights movement of the 1960's were bereft of altruistic motives. Because he is looking to prove that Talmudic Judaism is racist, that's what he finds. Other people who have looked for a universalistic Jewish defense of human rights can also find proof texts in the Talmud. It would be good to balance this book by reading Francine Klagsbrun's.

________ and Norton Mezvinsky. Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel. London and New York: Pluto Press, 1999.

Shaheen, Jack G. TV Arab. Bowling Green, Ohio: Bowling Green State University Press, 1984.
Discusses stereotypes of Arabs seen on TV.Unfortunately, the book is poorly organized. Shaheen drifts from tangent to tangent as he discusses shows that came from very different eras of television history. The book could have benefitted from some judicious editing. I found his conversations with TV producers enlightening, however.

Sheehan, Edward R.F. The Arabs, Israelis and Kissinger: A Secret History of American Diplomacy in the Middle East. New York: Reader's Digest Press, 1976

Shammas, Anton. Arabesques. (Fiction.) New York: Harper and Row, 1989.

Sheehan, Edward R.F., The Arabs, Israelis and Kissinger: A Secret History of American Diplomay in the Middle East. New York: Reader's Digest Press, 1976.

Shehadeh, Raja Occupier's Law: Israel and the West Bank. Revised edition. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies, 1988.

Highly recommended________.. Samed: A Journal of a West Bank Palestinian. New York: Adama Books, 1984.
Shehadeh brings the Catch-22 situation of the West Bank to life. This slim and readable book is the best I've read so far on what Palestinians living in the West Bank have to cope with on a day to day basis. Highly recommended.

Highly recommended________. The Sealed Room: Selections from the Diary of a Palestinian Living Under Israeli Occupation, September 1990-August, 1991. London: Quartet, 1992.

Shlaim, Avi. Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, The Zionist Movement, and the Partition of Palestine. New York: Columbia University Press, 1988.

Highly recommended________. The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. W.W. Norton and Company, 2000.
This is one of the most readable general histories of the Israeli-Arab conflict I've read. Benny Morris's Righteous Victims suffers in comparison. Although Shlaim is considered a "revisionist" historian (meaning he uses primary sources regarding the formation of the state of Israel instead of cultivated propaganda), this book is still definitely written from an Israeli perspective. He sees immense differences between Labor and Likud's philosophies, whereas from a Palestinian perspective, they've lost just as much land and been treated with just as much contempt under Labor than they have under Likud. On the other hand, having lived and worked in Hebron during the Rabin/Peres/Netanyahu years, I have to say his coverage of that period of time rings true to me. (6/2000)

________. The Politics of Partition: King Abdullah, the Zionists and Palestine, 1921-1951. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

________. War and Peace in the Middle East: A Concise History. New York: Penguin, 1995.

________. War and Peace in the Middle East: A Critique of American Policy. New York: New York: Whittle Books in Association with Viking, 1994.

*Shonfeld, Reb Moshe. The Holocaust Victims Accuse: Documents and Testimony on Jewish War Criminals. Brooklyn, NY: Neturei Karta of U.S.A., 1977.
A lot of the same material can be found in Segev's The Seventh Million, but Shonfeld highlights the confrontation between Jewish Orthodoxy and the Zionists. Part of the deep, deep anger expressed in this slim volume relates to the accusation by the Zionists that the passivity of ultra-Orthodox Jews allowed the Holocaust to happen. Shonfeld shows how at every stage in the Holocaust, Jews in Europe could have been saved through concerted international efforts, but the Zionists quashed these efforts in order to ensure that escaping Jews would go to Palestine only.

Shorris, Earl. Jews Without Mercy: a Lament. New York, Garden City: Anchor Press, 1982.
Shorris attacks the Jewish spokesmen for the neoconservative movement, focussing in part on their unflinching support of Israel despite the war in Lebanon. Poetic and moving.

Sprinzak, Ehud. The Ascendance of Israel's Radical Right. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
The title is self-explanatory. I found this book very helpful as I sought to understand the variations in rightwing ideology among the settlers of Kiryat Arba and Hebron. Many of the Hebron settlers with whom we had the most contact are heavily featured in the book. There are some inaccuracies about the Palestinian reality in Hebron (e.g. he calls Hebron University an "Islamic college"), but they are minor.

________. Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination. New York: The Free Press, 1999.
What I found most helpful in this book was the analysis of the circumstances that led to the Rabin assassination and his "short introduction to the Study of Political Violence" at the end, which has a much broader application. Not as engrossing as Karpin and Freedman's book, and apparently he gives Eyal more credence than they did, but all in all, a worthwhile read. 8/99

Stone, Robert. Damascus Gate. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1998.
This book is everything that Kellerman's Butcher's Theatre is not. Sensitive to ambiguity and coldly realistic about most of the actors in the ongoing drama of Israel and Palestine. While the perspective is more Israeli/American than it is Palestinian, it is at least the perspective of Israelis we don't hear much in North America. Pretty darn good thriller to boot.

Suleiman, Michael W., ed. U.S. Policy on Palestine from Wilson to Clinton. Normal, IL: AAUG, 1995.

Tack, Deane, A. Thorns of Resistance. Oregon: Destra Publishers, 1985.

Tawil, Raymonda Hawa. My Home, My Prison. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1979.
Tawil spends as much time talking about her oppression under patriarchal Palestinian society as she does about oppression under Israeli occupation. The story of her life highlights the complexities of the Israeli-Palestinian relationships. She can cheer on the Palestinian guerrillas while at the same time speak fondly of her Jewish schoolmates in Haifa and Israeli journalist friends. Her friendships with Israelis led to her ostracism from Palestinians whose cause she was championing against their Israeli enemies!

Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington: Indiana United Press, 1994.

Tillman, Seth P. The United States in the Middle East: Interests and Obstacles. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1982.

Highly recommendedTimerman, Jacobo. The Longest War: Israel in Lebanon. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982.
A heartbreaking book. Timerman, who lost family in the Holocaust and who was imprisoned and tortured in Argentina, emigrated to Israel in 1979. Although he had been brought up to believe certain Zionist myths, he could not help but recognize fascism and oppression when he saw it. His anguish is authentic.

________. Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981.
Because his book on the Lebanese War moved me so much, I wanted to read his book about his incarceration and torture in Argentina. I understand The Longest War better now. Mythical Zionism was part of the hopes and dreams that sustained him through his imprisonment. When he saw what Zionism meant in the context of Israel, Palestine and the Lebanese war, no wonder his heart was broken.

Tivnan, Edward. The Lobby: Jewish Political Power and American Foreign Policy. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.
Tivnan traces the origins of AIPAC and analyzes the American Jewish community's relationship with Israel. He deems both dysfunctional.
Also an interesting look at how deals are made in our government generally.

Tobin, Maurine and Robert Tobin [eds]. How Long o Lord? Christian, Jewish and Muslim Voices from the Ground and Visions for the Future in Israel/Palestine. Cambridge, MA: Cowley Publications, 2002.

Turki, Fawaz. The Disinherited. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1972.
A bit more history in this one than the others. All three of his books cited here cover the period from his childhood through adulthood, but in each one the perspective is a little different, and the stories and memories are different. I started with his latest book, below, and found it fascinating to see how each decade subtly shifted his outlook, and how each shift seemed to make a different set of memories relevant in each book. One thing that remains constant throughout each book is that his resentment at how Arab regimes have treated Palestinians surpasses the resentment he feels toward Israelis.

Highly recommended________. The Exile's Return: The Making of a Palestinian-American. New York: The Free Press, 1994.
A gritty biographical work of Turki's struggle with the conventions of Palestinian society and his own personal demons--many of which were probably born as a result of his horrific childhood in a Beirut refugee camp. I have yet to read a book by either a Palestinian or Israeli that is as relentlessly self-critical or as critical of Palestinian culture and leaders. He has coined a phrase, "neobackwardness," to describe the current Palestinian leadership.

________. Soul in Exile: Lives of a Palestinian Revolutionary. Monthly Review Press, 1988.
In this book, he speaks of his sister Jasmine getting married, while in the later book, he tells of his brother killing her to avenge the family honor.

Highly recommendedUsher, Graham. Palestine in Crisis: The Struggle for Peace and Political Independence After Oslo. London: Pluto Press, 1995.

Viorst, Milton. Sandcastles: The Arabs in Search of the MOdern World. New York: Harper and Row, 1987.

________. Sands of Sorrow: Israel's Journey from Independence. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1994.

Wagner, Donald. Anxious for Armageddon: A Call to Partnership for Middle Eastern and Western Christians. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1995.
Wagner's opening anecdote about his experience in Beirut while the Israelis bombed it is profoundly moving. I was hoping for a bit more head on tackling of the Christian Zionist movement, but Halsell's book is a better bet for this.

Wallach, John and Janet Wallach. Still Small Voices: The Untold Human Stories Behind the Violence in the West Bank and Gaza. San Diego, New York, London: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1989.

Walvoord, John F. Armageddon, Oil and the Middle East Crisis: What the Bible Says About the Future of the Middle East and the End of Western Civilization. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1990.

Wheatcroft, Geoffrey. The Controversy of Zion: Jewish Nationalism, the Jewish State and the Unresolved Jewish Dilemma. Reading, MA, et al.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, 1996.
I understood a lot more of the social forces in Europe that led to Zionism after reading this book. Of necessity, Wheatcroft does not do as thorough a job of analyzing the forces that led to Jews emigrating from Arab countries or indeed what actually has been happening in Israel and Palestine in the past decade, and certainly does not make much of an attempt to view things through Palestinian eyes. However, the book would have been three times as long if he had.

Highly recommendedWilentz, Amy. Martyr's Crossing: A Novel. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.
Wilentz is a journalist whose writing about Hebron in the Nation I have appreciated. The kernel of this story involves a child who dies of an asthma attack at the checkpoint between Jerusalem and Ramallah and the fall-out afterwards. Told from the viewpoints of his mother, a Palestinian-American, his grandfather, a character obviously based on Edward Said, and the soldier at the checkpoint (among others), it really does capture some of the complexity of the relationships between Israelis and Palestinians. My one quibble with the book has to do with the fact there is no "ordinary" Palestinian viewpoint, like those of the "ordinary" soldier and his mother. Wilentz has obviously spent more time among Israelis than she has among Palestinians, but she nonetheless pushes the boundaries of the discussion of the conflict beyond what one normally finds at a major publisher. (3/2001)

Highly recommendedWinternitz, Helen. A Season of Stones: Living in a Palestinian Village. New York: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991.
Winternitz chronicles the months she spent living in the Palestinian village of Nahalin during the Intifada. While the 21st chapter is the most dramatic, detailing as it does a massacre of villagers by the border police, what struck me was her description of the slow strangulation of the village by surrounding settlementsÑsomething that still continues as of this writing (8/98.)

Woolfson, Marion. Bassam Shak'a: A Portrait of a Palestinian. London: Third World Centre, 1981.

Highly recommended________. Prophets in Babylon: Jews in the Arab World. London: Faber and Faber, 1980.

Highly recommendedYermiya, Dov. My War Diary: Lebanon June 5-July 1, 1982. Boston: South End Press, 1983.
Yermiya exemplifies the old line Kibbutznik Zionist attitude that was slightly patronizing to Arabs but in general wished to live as good neighbors with them. The book is valuable in that we see the horror of what the IDF did to civilians in Lebanon through the eyes of a career military man. At times I felt a little uneasy about his self-proclaimed heroicism and his repeated assertions of how much Arabs like him. He also never refers to Palestinian guerrillas as anything other than terrorists. Given the alternatives though, it is a shame there were not more soldiers in Lebanon like him.

Young, Ronald J. Missed Opportunities for Peace: U.S. Middle East Policy 1981-86. Philadelphia: American Friends Service Commitee, 1987.

Zahran, Yasmin. A Beggar at Damascus Gate. (Fiction.) Sausalito, CA: The Post-Apollo Press, 1995.

Zukerman, William. Voice of Dissent: Jewish Problems, 1948-1961. New York: Devin-Adair, 1945.